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[Review] Working toward gender diversity and inclusion in medicine: myths and solutions

Tags: General

  • Association of American Medical Colleges

More women than men enrolled in U.S. medical schools in 2017.

A snapshot of progress among women in the workforce.

What works: gender equality by design.

The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA;

Through the labyrinth: the truth about how women become leaders.

Harvard Business Review Press, Boston, MA;

Gender stereotypes and workplace bias.

Res Organ Behav. 32: 113-135

Gender discrimination comes in many forms for today's working women.

Women, business and the law 2018.

World Bank Group, Washington, DC;

Discrimination against women persists around the globe hampering development.

Girls and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics: STEMing the tide and broadening participation in STEM careers.

Policy Insights Behav Brain Sci. 1: 21-29

Never the right age? Gender and age-based discrimination in employment.

Gend Work Organ. 11: 95-115

“If you're light you're alright”: light skin color as social capital for women of color.

Gend Soc. 16: 175-193

Discrimination, women, and work: processes and variations by race and class.

Sociol Q. 50: 336-359
  • Sanchez-Hucles JV
  • Davis DD

Women and women of color in leadership: complexity, identity, and intersectionality.

Am Psychol. 65: 171-181

Gender: an intersectionality perspective.

Sex Roles. 59: 301-311
  • Williams JC
  • Multhaup M
  • Mihaylo S

Why companies should add class to their diversity discussions.

Micro inequities and everyday inequalities: ‘race,’ gender, sexuality and class in medical school.

Can J Sociol. 26: 583-610
  • Files JA
  • Mayer AP
  • Ko MG
  • et al.

Speaker introductions at internal medicine grand rounds: forms of address reveal gender bias.

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 26: 413-419

Why are women still earning less than men in medicine?.

CMAJ. 190: E664-E665
  • Sanfey H
  • Crandall M
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  • et al.

Strategies for identifying and closing the gender salary gap in surgery.

J Am Coll Surg. 225: 333-338

Exploring the color of glass: letters of recommendation for female and male medical faculty.

Discourse Soc. 14: 191-220
  • Williams J
  • Phillips KW
  • Hall EV

Double jeopardy? Gender bias against women of color in science.

The benefits of climate for inclusion for gender-diverse groups.

Acad Manage J. 56: 1754-1774

Disentangling the meanings of diversity and inclusion in organizations.

Group Organ Manag. 31: 212-236
  • Shore LM
  • Randel AE
  • Chung BG
  • Dean MA
  • Holcombe Ehrhart K
  • Singh G

Inclusion and diversity in work groups: a review and model for future research.

J Manage. 37: 1262-1289

Diversity ≠ inclusion: promoting integration in higher education.

Educ Res. 42: 467-475
  • Kaiser CR
  • Major B
  • Jurcevic I
  • Dover TL
  • Brady LM
  • Shapiro JR

Presumed fair: ironic effects of organizational diversity structures.

J Pers Soc Psychol. 104: 504-519
  • Kang SK
  • DeCelles KA
  • Tilcsik A
  • Jun S

Whitened résumés: race and self-presentation in the labor market.

Adm Sci Q. 61: 469-502

The person you mean to be: confronting bias to build a better workplace and world.

1st edn. Harper Business, New York, NY;
  • Macrae CN
  • Milne AB
  • Bodenhausen GV

Stereotypes as energy-saving devices: a peek inside the cognitive toolbox.

J Pers Soc Psychol. 66: 37-47

Social cognition: thinking categorically about others.

Annu Rev Psychol. 51: 93-120
  • Fiske ST
  • Lin M
  • Neuberg SL

The continuum model: ten years later.

in: Chaiken S , Trope Y (Eds.) Dual-process theories in social psychology. Guilford Press, New York, NY; : 231-254

Social cognition: categorical person perception.

Br J Psychol. 92: 239-255

The primacy of age and sex in the structure of person categories.

Soc Cogn. 7: 262-274

Framed before we know it: how gender shapes social relations.

Gend Soc. 23: 145-160

The psychology of stereotyping.

Guilford Press, New York, NY;

Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes.

Psychol Rev. 102: 4-27
  • Ellemers N
  • Rink F
  • Derks B
  • Ryan MK

Women in high places: when and why promoting women into top positions can harm them individually or as a group (and how to prevent this).

Res Organ Behav. 32: 163-187
  • Greenwald AG
  • McGhee DE
  • Schwartz JL

Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test.

J Pers Soc Psychol. 74: 1464-1480
  • Oswald FL
  • Mitchell G
  • Blanton H
  • Jaccard J
  • Tetlock PE

Predicting ethnic and racial discrimination: a meta-analysis of IAT criterion studies.

J Pers Soc Psychol. 105: 171-192

Psychology's favorite tool for measuring racism isn't up to the job.

Why diversity programs fail.

Best practices or best guesses? Assessing the efficacy of corporate affirmative action and diversity policies.

Am Sociol Rev. 71: 589-617

The effects of diversity awareness training on differential treatment.

Group Organ Manag. 29: 517-536
  • Macrae CN
  • Bodenhausen GV
  • Milne AB
  • Jetten J

Out of mind but back in sight: stereotypes on the rebound.

J Pers Soc Psychol. 67: 808-817

Condoning stereotyping? How awareness of stereotyping prevalence impacts expression of stereotypes.

J Appl Psychol. 100: 343-359
  • Hill C
  • Corbett C
  • St Rose A

Why so few? Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  • Miller DI
  • Eagly AH
  • Linn MC

Women's representation in science predicts national gender-science stereotypes: evidence from 66 nations.

J Educ Psychol. 107: 631-644
  • Halpern DF
  • Benbow CP
  • Geary DC
  • Gur RC
  • Hyde JS
  • Gernsbacher MA

The science of sex differences in science and mathematics.

Psychol Sci Public Interest. 8: 1-51
  • Hyde JS
  • Lindberg SM
  • Linn MC
  • Ellis AB
  • Williams CC

Gender similarities characterize math performance.

Science. 321: 494-495
  • Pomerantz EM
  • Altermatt ER
  • Saxon JL

Making the grade but feeling distressed: gender differences in academic performance and internal distress.

J Educ Psychol. 94: 396-404

Sex differences in intrinsic aptitude for mathematics and science?: a critical review.

Am Psychol. 60: 950-958
  • Carnes M
  • Bartels CM
  • Kaatz A
  • Kolehmainen C

Why is John more likely to become department chair than Jennifer?.

Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 126: 197-214
  • Hall W
  • Schmader T
  • Aday A
  • Croft E

Decoding the dynamics of social identity threat in the workplace: a within-person analysis of women's and men's interactions in STEM.

Soc Psychol Personal Sci. ()
  • Hall W
  • Schmader T
  • Aday A
  • Inness M
  • Croft E

Climate control: the relationship between social identity threat and cues to an identity-safe culture.

J Pers Soc Psychol. 115: 446-467
  • Moss-Racusin CA
  • Dovidio JF
  • Brescoll VL
  • Graham MJ
  • Handelsman J

Science faculty's subtle gender biases favor male students.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 109: 16474-16479

The role of stereotype threats in undermining girls' and women's performance and interest in STEM fields.

Sex Roles. 66: 175-183
  • Steinpreis RE
  • Anders KA
  • Ritzke D

The impact of gender on the review of the curricula vitae of job applicants and tenure candidates: a national empirical study.

Sex Roles. 41: 509-528

Pursuing quality: how search costs and uncertainty magnify gender-based double standards in a multistage evaluation process.

Adm Sci Q. 62: 698-730

Gender stereotypes are alive, well, and busy producing workplace discrimination.

Ind Organ Psychol. 1: 393-398

Workplace harassment: double jeopardy for minority women.

J Appl Psychol. 91: 426-436
  • Clancy KBH
  • Lee KMN
  • Rodgers EM
  • Richey C

Double jeopardy in astronomy and planetary science: women of color face greater risks of gendered and racial harassment.

J Geophys Res Planets. 122: 1610-1623

Pipelines and pathways: women of color in undergraduate STEM majors and the college experiences that contribute to persistence.

Harv Educ Rev. 81: 209-241
  • Krieger N
  • Waterman PD
  • Hartman C
  • et al.

Social hazards on the job: workplace abuse, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination— a study of black, latino, and white low-income women and men workers in the United States.

Int J Health Serv. 36: 51-85

The meaning of workplace discrimination for women with disabilities.

Work. 24: 369-380

Gendered ageism and “lookism”: a triple jeopardy for female academics.

Women Manage Rev. 21: 500-517
  • Babcock L
  • Recalde MP
  • Vesterlund L
  • Weingart L

Gender differences in accepting and receiving requests for tasks with low promotability.

Am Econ Rev. 107: 714-747

Sexual harassment. Violence against women in the workplace.

Am Psychol. 48: 1070-1076

Women's jobs, men's jobs: sex segregation and emotional labor.

Public Adm Rev. 64: 289-298

Women don't ask? Women don't say no? Bargaining and service in the political science profession.

PS Polit Sci Polit. 46: 355-369

The dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of emotional labor.

Acad Manage Rev. 21: 986-1010

Interpreting signals in the labor market: evidence from medical referrals.

  • Thomas-Hunt MC
  • Phillips KW

When what you know is not enough: expertise and gender dynamics in task groups.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 30: 1585-1598

Gender inequality and time allocations among academic faculty.

Gend Soc. 24: 769-793

Normative discrimination and the motherhood penalty.

Gend Soc. 24: 616-646
  • Correll SJ
  • Benard S
  • Paik I

Getting a job: is there a motherhood penalty?.

AJS. 112: 1297-1339

Persistence of women and minorities in STEM field majors: is it the school that matters?.

Econ Educ Rev. 29: 911-922
  • Thomas KM
  • Mack DA
  • Montagliani A

The arguments against diversity: are they valid?.

in: Stockdale MS , Crosby FJ (Eds.) The psychology and management of workplace diversity. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA; : 31-51

Gender, race, and meritocracy in organizational careers.

AJS. 113: 1479-1526

The paradox of meritocracy in organizations.

Adm Sci Q. 55: 543-676
  • Brooks AW
  • Huang L
  • Kearney SW
  • Murray FE

Investors prefer entrepreneurial ventures pitched by attractive men.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 111: 4427-4431

Status processes in human-computer interactions: does gender matter?.

Comput Human Behav. 37: 189-195

Nepotism and sexism in peer-review.

Nature. 387: 341-343

Nepotism and sexism in peer-review.

in: Wyers M , Barbercheck M , Giesman D , Öztürk HÖ , Wayne M (Eds.) Women, Science, and Technology. 2nd edn. Routledge, New York, NY; : 50-56
  • Cuddy AJ
  • Schultz SJ
  • Fosse NE

P-curving a more comprehensive body of research on postural feedback reveals clear evidential value for power-posing effects: reply to Simmons and Simonsohn (2017).

Psychol Sci. 29: 656-666
  • Rennung M
  • Blum J
  • Göritz AS

To strike a pose: no stereotype backlash for power posing women.

Front Psychol. 7: 1463

Women don't ask: negotiation and the gender divide.

Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ;

How can women escape the compensation negotiation dilemma? Relational accounts are one answer.

Psychol Women Q. 37: 80-96

Who takes the floor and why: gender, power, and volubility in organizations.

Adm Sci Q. 56: 622-641
  • Akinola M
  • Martin AE
  • Phillips KW

To delegate or not to delegate: gender differences in affective associations and behavioral responses to delegation.

Acad Manage J. 61: 1467-1491

Disruptions in women's self-promotion: the backlash avoidance model.

Psychol Women Q. 34: 186-202

Are people prejudiced against women? Some answers from research on attitudes, gender stereotypes, and judgments of competence.

Eur Rev Soc Psychol. 5: 1-35
  • Phelan JE
  • Moss-Racusin CA
  • Rudman LA

Competent yet out in the cold: shifting criteria for hiring reflect backlash toward agentic women.

Psychol Women Q. 32: 406-413

Feminized management and backlash toward agentic women: the hidden costs to women of a kinder, gentler image of middle managers.

J Pers Soc Psychol. 77: 1004-1010

Prescriptive gender stereotypes and backlash toward agentic women.

J Soc Issues. 57: 743-762

When Harry fired Sally: the double standard in punishing misconduct. National Bureau of Economic Research.

  • Kennedy J
  • McDonnell M-H
  • Stephens N

Does gender raise the ethical bar? Exploring the punishment of ethical violations at work.

Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY;

More and less effective updating: the role of trajectory management in making sense again.

Adm Sci Q. ()
  • Haynes AB
  • Weiser TG
  • Berry WR
  • et al.

A surgical safety checklist to reduce morbidity and mortality in a global population.

N Engl J Med. 360: 491-499

The checklist manifesto: how to get things right.

1st edn. Picador, New York, NY;

Beyond the business case for social responsibility.

Acad Manage Discov. ()

Because it's 2017: gender equality as an innovation challenge.

Nudge: improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness, revised and expanded edition.

Penguin Books, New York, NY;

Seeing is believing: exposure to counterstereotypic women leaders and its effect on the malleability of automatic gender stereotyping.

J Exp Soc Psychol. 40: 642-658

Interpersonal triggers and cultural moderators of social identity threat.

() University of British Columbia, ; : 1-171
  • Murphy MC
  • Steele CM
  • Gross JJ

Signaling threat: how situational cues affect women in math, science, and engineering settings.

Psychol Sci. 18: 879-885
  • Rosenthal L
  • Levy SR
  • London B
  • Lobel M
  • Bazile C

In pursuit of the MD: the impact of role models, identity compatibility, and belonging among undergraduate women.

Sex Roles. 68: 464-473

The psychology of action: linking cognition and motivation to behavior.

Guilford Press, New York, NY;

Mechanisms of identity conflict: uncertainty, anxiety, and the behavioral inhibition system.

Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 20: 223-244

The construction of social norms and standards.

in: Kruglanski AW , Higgins ET (Eds.) Social psychology: handbook of basic principles. Guilford Press, New York, NY; : 799-829

Attitudes toward traditional and nontraditional parents.

Psychol Women Q. 29: 436-445

Gender and social influence.

J Soc Issues. 57: 725-741

What women and men should be, shouldn't be, are allowed to be, and don't have to be: the contents of prescriptive gender stereotypes.

Psychol Women Q. 26: 269-281

Social influence: compliance and conformity.

Annu Rev Psychol. 55: 591-621
  • Cialdini RB
  • Kallgren CA
  • Reno RR

A focus theory of normative conduct: a theoretical refinement and reevaluation of the role of norms in human behavior.

in: Zanna MP (Ed.) Advances in experimental social psychology. Academic Press, Cambridge, MA; : 201-234

Pay gap growing between family doctors, specialists.

Changing norms to change behavior.

Annu Rev Psychol. 67: 339-361

Challenging operations: medical reform and resistance in surgery.

University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL;

Transformational leadership and organizational culture.

Public Adm Q. 17: 112-121

The role of leaders in shaping formal team norms.

Leadersh Q. 18: 105-120
  • Dobbin F
  • Schrage D
  • Kalev A

Rage against the iron cage: the varied effects of bureaucratic personnel reforms on diversity.

Am Sociol Rev. 80: 1014-1044
  • Legault L
  • Gutsell JN
  • Inzlicht M

Ironic effects of antiprejudice messages: how motivational interventions can reduce (but also increase) prejudice.

Psychol Sci. 22: 1472-1477

Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being.

Am Psychol. 55: 68-78

(Forget a mentor) find a sponsor: the new way to fast-track your career.

Harvard Business Review Press, Boston, MA;
  • Patton EW
  • Griffith KA
  • Jones RD
  • Stewart A
  • Ubel PA
  • Jagsi R

Differences in mentor-mentee sponsorship in male vs female recipients of National Institutes of Health grants.

JAMA Intern Med. 177: 580-582

Implementation intentions: strong effects of simple plans.

Am Psychol. 54: 493-503

Implementation intentions and goal achievement: a meta-analysis of effects and processes.

in: Zanna M (Ed.) Advances in experimental social psychology. Academic Press, Cambridge, MA; : 69-119

Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey.

Am Psychol. 57: 705-717
  • Kang S
  • DeCelles K
  • Tilcsik A
  • Jun S

The unintended consequences of diversity statements.

  • Trawalter S
  • Driskell S
  • Davidson MN

What is good isn't always fair: on the unintended effects of framing diversity as good.

Anal Soc Issues Public Policy. 16: 69-99
  • Unzueta MM
  • Knowles ED
  • Ho GC

Diversity is what you want it to be: how social-dominance motives affect construals of diversity.

Psychol Sci. 23: 303-309
  • Cabana MD
  • Rand CS
  • Powe NR
  • et al.

Why don't physicians follow clinical practice guidelines? A framework for improvement.

JAMA. 282: 1458-1465

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