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Sub-Saharan Africa total diet study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria: Pesticides occurrence in foods.

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In the framework of the first regional Total Diet Study in Sub-Saharan Africa, 3696 foodstuffs, commonly consumed in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria were purchased, prepared as consumed and pooled into 308 composite samples. Those core foods were tested for up to 470 pesticides residues by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. 39 pesticides were detected with 294 total occurrences, including 47.3% organophosphate pesticides and 35.7% pyrethroids. More specifically, 6 substances represented 75.5% of all 3 organophosphates and 3 pyrethroids: chlorpyrifos (22.4%) cypermethrin (18.0%) dichlorvos (13.6%), lambda cyhalothrin (8.2%), permethrin (7.5%) and profenofos (5.8%). One pesticide or more was detected in 45.8% of samples. Strikingly, several pesticides were quantified in 2 composite samples of smoked fish from Mali: chlorpyrifos (5236-18 084 μg/kg), profenofos (30-182 μg/kg), cypermethrin (22-250 μg/kg), cyfluthrin (16-117 μg/kg), lambda cyhalothrin (9-17 μg/kg) and permethrin (3-6 μg/kg).

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