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  • Correlates and determinants of Early Infant Diagnosis outcomes in North-Central Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-09-17 11:39:36 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Correlates and determinants of Early Infant Diagnosis outcomes in North-Central Nigeria. AIDS Res Ther. 2019 Sep 14;16(1):27 Authors: Dakum P, Tola M, Iboro N, Okolo CA, Anuforom O, Chime C, Peters S, Jumare J, Ogbanufe O, Ahmad A, Ndembi N Abstract BACKGROUND: A negative status following confirmatory Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) is the desired pediatric outcome of prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) programs. EID impacts epidemic control by confirming non-infected HIV-exposed infants (HEIs) and prompting timely initiation of ART in HIV-infected babies which improves treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We explored factors associated with EID outcomes among HEI in North-Central Nigeria. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study using EID data of PMTCT-enrollees matched with results of HEI's dried blood samples (DBS), processed for DNA-PCR from January 2015 through July 2017. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS version 20.0 to generate frequencies and examine associations, including binomial logistic regression with p < 0.05 being statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 14,448 HEI in this analysis, 51.8% were female and 95% (n = 12,801) were breastfed. The median age of the infants at sample collection was 8 weeks (IQR 6-20), compared to HEI tested after 20 weeks of age, those tested earlier had significantly greater odds of a negative HIV result (≤ 6 weeks: OR = 3.8; 6-8 weeks: OR = 2.1; 8-20 weeks: OR = 1.5) with evidence of a significant linear trend (p < 0.001). Similarly, HEI whose mothers received combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) before (OR = 11.8) or during the index pregnancy (OR = 8.4) had significantly higher odds as compared to those whose mothers did not receive cART. In addition, HEI not breastfed had greater odds of negative HIV result as compared to those breastfed (OR = 1.9). ...

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  • Lessons from a training needs assessment to strengthen the capacity of routine immunization service providers in Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-09-17 11:39:36 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Lessons from a training needs assessment to strengthen the capacity of routine immunization service providers in Nigeria. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019 Sep 14;19(1):664 Authors: Arogundade L, Akinwumi T, Molemodile S, Nwaononiwu E, Ezika J, Yau I, Wonodi C Abstract BACKGROUND: Health workers (HWs) providing routine immunization (RI) services play a crucial role in influencing vaccine uptake, a key determinant of improved immunization coverage. Over the years, Training Needs Assessments (TNAs) have not been routinely utilized in Nigeria to determine unmet needs of health workers offering immunization services and what approaches should be adopted to meet their training needs. The objective was to assess the level of Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) knowledge among RI service providers and tutors in pre-service institutions in three Nigerian states, to identify unfulfilled training needs and their implications. It also sought HWs perception on a pilot training approach, where tutors will be used for in-service training. METHODS: TNA survey tools were designed to obtain knowledge-based information on the fundamental EPI concepts through key informant interviews and focus group discussions with 90 HWs and 27 pre-service tutors. Quantitative data was also obtained, hence utilizing a mixed method approach for the study. RESULTS: In spite of several previous trainings, HWs knowledge on basic immunization concepts including Reaching Every Ward (REW) strategy was varied and suboptimal. 83% of the HWs could not differentiate between the live attenuated and killed vaccines. In addition, pre-service tutors knowledge of fundamental EPI concepts, as well as HW perception of the new training approach also varied across the states. CONCLUSION: TNAs are valuable in determining specific training approaches to improve HWs skills needed to implement strategies required to increase ...

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  • Contextual and Social Factors Influencing Male Fertility in Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-09-17 11:39:35 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Contextual and Social Factors Influencing Male Fertility in Nigeria. Int Q Community Health Educ. 2019 Sep 14;:272684X19875022 Authors: Adewole OG, Omotoso KO, Asa SS PMID: 31524061 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • High prevalence of multiple drug resistant enteric bacteria: Evidence from a teaching hospital in Southwest Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-09-17 11:39:35 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles High prevalence of multiple drug resistant enteric bacteria: Evidence from a teaching hospital in Southwest Nigeria. J Infect Public Health. 2019 Sep 12;: Authors: Kayode A, Okunrounmu P, Olagbende A, Adedokun O, Hassan AW, Atilola G Abstract The development and evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in pathogens has been reported to be one of the major issues confronting the global health community. The aim of this study was to examine the period prevalence of antibiotic resistance, as well as the trends and patterns in sensitivity profile of enteric bacteria isolated from urine samples of patients with UTIs in a teaching Hospital in south west Nigeria. Urine samples were collected from 77 patients with UTIs from February 2017 to October 2018. Standard laboratory methods were used for urine sample culture and bacterial identification. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to evaluate antimicrobial sensitivity. Predominant enteric bacteria isolates were Escherichia coli (24, 39.3%), Salmonella species (12, 19.7%), Klebsiella species (4, 6.6%), Providencia species (6, 9.8%), Proteus species (8, 13.1%), Serratia species (2, 3.3%), Yersinia species (1, 1.6%) and Morganella species (4, 6.6%). A large proportion (90.2%) of isolates obtained were multi-drug resistant. High resistance in amoxycillin-clavulanate (98%), cefuroxime (92%), erythromycin (90%) and ceftazidime (84%) were recorded. These results emphasize the importance of continuous screening and surveillance programmes for detection of AMR in enteric bacteria of public health importance. PMID: 31522967 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • Mapping the baseline prevalence of lymphatic filariasis across Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-09-17 11:39:35 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Mapping the baseline prevalence of lymphatic filariasis across Nigeria. Parasit Vectors. 2019 Sep 16;12(1):440 Authors: Eneanya OA, Fronterre C, Anagbogu I, Okoronkwo C, Garske T, Cano J, Donnelly CA Abstract INTRODUCTION: The baseline endemicity profile of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a key benchmark for planning control programmes, monitoring their impact on transmission and assessing the feasibility of achieving elimination. Presented in this work is the modelled serological and parasitological prevalence of LF prior to the scale-up of mass drug administration (MDA) in Nigeria using a machine learning based approach. METHODS: LF prevalence data generated by the Nigeria Lymphatic Filariasis Control Programme during country-wide mapping surveys conducted between 2000 and 2013 were used to build the models. The dataset comprised of 1103 community-level surveys based on the detection of filarial antigenemia using rapid immunochromatographic card tests (ICT) and 184 prevalence surveys testing for the presence of microfilaria (Mf) in blood. Using a suite of climate and environmental continuous gridded variables and compiled site-level prevalence data, a quantile regression forest (QRF) model was fitted for both antigenemia and microfilaraemia LF prevalence. Model predictions were projected across a continuous 5 × 5 km gridded map of Nigeria. The number of individuals potentially infected by LF prior to MDA interventions was subsequently estimated. RESULTS: Maps presented predict a heterogeneous distribution of LF antigenemia and microfilaraemia in Nigeria. The North-Central, North-West, and South-East regions displayed the highest predicted LF seroprevalence, whereas predicted Mf prevalence was highest in the southern regions. Overall, 8.7 million and 3.3 million infections were predicted for ICT and Mf, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: QRF is a machine learning-based ...

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  • The Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency among Men with and without Prostate Cancer in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-09-17 11:39:35 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles The Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency among Men with and without Prostate Cancer in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Nutr Cancer. 2019 Sep 14;:1-8 Authors: Amadi C, Aleme BM Abstract Background: Zinc deficiency is reportedly common and influences prostate cancer (PCa) incidence among elderly males. Hence, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency among Nigerian males with PCa. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive case-control study among 220 PCa patients and 220 age-matched controls. Clinical and laboratory variables were obtained and evaluated among both study groups. Analysis of serum PSA and plasma zinc was done under standard protocols. Results: No age difference (cases: 69.73 ± 7.72 vs controls: 68.97 ± 7.32; P > 0.05) was observed among both study groups. Prevalence of zinc deficiency among PCa and control groups was 69.1% and 21.8%, respectively. Zinc deficiency was more prevalent among the elderly PCa patients (n = 119; 78.3%) compared to elderly controls. Higher proportion (n = 136; 89.5%) of zinc-deficient PCa patients presented with moderate-severe PCa disease. Elderly PCa patients (n = 119; 81.0%) predominated among those exhibiting moderate-severe PCa disease. Inverse relationship between zinc and age was more pronounced among the PCa patients (Beta= -0.454; P < 0.001) than the controls (Beta= -0.343; P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The study findings indicate a significant burden of zinc deficiency associated with adverse outcome of PCa among elderly males with the disease. Zinc deficiency may serve as a therapeutic target or diagnostic marker in elderly males with PCa. PMID: 31522560 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • Simplified clinical algorithm for identifying patients eligible for same-day HIV treatment initiation (SLATE): Results from an individually randomized trial in South Africa and Kenya

    Posted 2019-09-16 21:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    by Sydney Rosen, Mhairi Maskew, Bruce A. Larson, Alana T. Brennan, Isaac Tsikhutsu, Matthew P. Fox, Lungisile Vezi, Margaret Bii, Willem D. F. Venter Background The World Health Organization recommends "same-day" initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV patients who are eligible and ready. Identifying efficient, safe, and feasible procedures for determining same-day eligibility and readiness is now a priority. The Simplified Algorithm for Treatment Eligibility (SLATE) study evaluated a clinical algorithm that allows healthcare workers to determine eligibility for same-day treatment and to initiate ART at the patient’s first clinic visit. Methods and findings SLATE was an individually randomized trial at three outpatient clinics in urban settlements in Johannesburg, South Africa and three hospital clinics in western Kenya. Adult, nonpregnant, HIV-positive, ambulatory patients presenting for any HIV care, including HIV testing, but not yet on ART were enrolled and randomized to the SLATE algorithm arm or standard care. The SLATE algorithm used four screening tools—a symptom self-report, medical history questionnaire, physical examination, and readiness assessment—to ascertain eligibility for same-day initiation or refer for further care. Follow-up was by record review, and analysis was conducted by country. We report primary outcomes of 1) ART initiation ≤28 days and 2) initiation ≤28 days and retention in care ≤8 months of enrollment. From March 7, 2017 to April 17, 2018, we enrolled 600 patients (median [IQR] age 34 [29–40] and CD4 count 286 [128–490]; 63% female) in South Africa and 477 patients in Kenya (median [IQR] age 35 [29–43] and CD4 count 283 [117–541]; 58% female). In the intervention arm, 78% of patients initiated ≤28 days in South Africa, compared to 68% in the standard arm (risk difference [RD] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 10% [3%–17%]); in Kenya, 94% of intervention-arm patients initiated ≤28 days compared to ...

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  • Psychosocial working conditions, trajectories of disability, and the mediating role of cognitive decline and chronic diseases: A population-based cohort study

    Posted 2019-09-16 21:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    by Kuan-Yu Pan, Weili Xu, Francesca Mangialasche, Rui Wang, Serhiy Dekhtyar, Amaia Calderón-Larrañaga, Laura Fratiglioni, Hui-Xin Wang Background Unfavorable psychosocial working conditions have been associated with cognitive decline and chronic diseases, both of which may subsequently accelerate functional dependence. This study aimed to investigate the association between job demand–control–support combinations and trajectories of disability in later life and to further explore the role of cognitive decline and the co-occurrence of chronic diseases in mediating this association. Methods and findings In this cohort study, 2,937 community dwellers aged 60+ years (mean age 73 ± 10.6; 62.9% female) residing in the Kungsholmen District of Stockholm, Sweden, participated in the baseline survey (2001–2004) and were followed up to 12 years. Lifelong occupational history was obtained through a standardized interview; job demands, job control, and social support at work in the longest-held occupation were graded with a psychosocial job–exposure matrix. Job control, demands, and social support were dichotomized using the median values from the matrix, respectively, to further generate demand–control–support combinations. Disability was measured by summing the number of impaired basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Global cognitive function was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination. Chronic conditions were ascertained by clinical examinations, medical history, and patient clinical records; the total number of chronic diseases was summed. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models and mediation analysis. Age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, leisure activity engagement, early-life socioeconomic status, occupational characteristic and physical demands, and baseline cognitive function and number of chronic diseases were adjusted for in the analyses. Compared with active jobs (high control/high demands; n = 1,807), high ...

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  • nigeria[Title]; +18 new citations

    Posted 2019-09-15 17:39:29 by: The HealthFolk Team

    18 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: nigeria[Title] These pubmed results were generated on 2019/09/15PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web ...

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  • [Correspondence] Recurring acute encephalitis syndrome outbreaks in Bihar, India

    Posted 2019-09-14 00:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    The death of 154 undernourished children from acute encephalitis syndrome in a short period of 3 weeks1 is deeply concerning. The World Report by Patralekha Chatterjee1 is a timely update on a situation that recurs almost every year in Bihar, India. Chatterjee rightly pinpoints undernutrition, inadequate health facilities, and poor awareness among the local population as contributing factors to these ...

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