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  • Chemical and biological studies on Bridelia ferruginea grown in Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-02-22 01:39:34 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Chemical and biological studies on Bridelia ferruginea grown in Nigeria. Nat Prod Res. 2018 Feb 19;:1-5 Authors: Afolayan M, Srivedavyasasri R, Asekun OT, Familoni OB, Ross SA Abstract Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of dried leaves of Bridelia ferruginea led to the isolation and identification of fourteen compounds (1-14): compound 1 [mixture of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids], stearyl monoester of 2-O-β-ᴅ-glucosylglycerol (2), 6β-hydroxy-(20R)-24-ethylcholest-4-en-3-one (3a), 6β-hydroxy-(20R)-24-ethylcholest-4,22-dien-3-one (3b), lutein (4), vomifoliol (5), corilagin (6), kaempferide-3-O-β-ᴅ-glucoside (7), myricetin (8), isomericitrin (9), isoquercetin (10), myricitrin (11), quercitrin (12), rutin (13), and β-sitosterol glucoside (14). The total extract exhibited moderate activity towards CB2 receptor and 90% inhibition against leishmanial pathogen Trypanosoma brucei. Compound 4 exhibited 73% displacement in CB2 receptor with IC50 56.47 μM, and 93% inhibition towards T. brucei with IC50 4.16 μM. Compound 11 showed 99% inhibition towards Escherichia coli with IC50 1.123 μM. PMID: 29457749 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • PLHIV are more likely to have mental distress: evidence from a comparison of a cross-section of HIV and diabetes patients at Tertiary Hospitals in Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-02-22 01:39:34 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles PLHIV are more likely to have mental distress: evidence from a comparison of a cross-section of HIV and diabetes patients at Tertiary Hospitals in Nigeria. AIDS Care. 2018 Feb 19;:1-8 Authors: Abiodun O, Lawal I, Omokanye C Abstract HIV is now regarded as a chronic disease because of the availability of treatment. However, it is not well known if there are differences (clinically and in magnitude) between the mental health status of PLHIV and people living with other chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the mental health status of patients attending antiretroviral clinics to patients attending diabetes clinics at tertiary hospitals in Ogun State, Nigeria. A comparative hospital-based cross-sectional study of mental distress among 639 HIV-positive and 639 diabetic patients was carried out. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to control for confounders and to predict the probability of mental distress in PLHIV. The mean age of the participants was 44.87 (± 13.83) years and it had a range of 63 years (17 to 80). The prevalence of mental distress was higher among HIV-positive participants (46.79%) than diabetic participants (33.02%) (p < 0.0001). HIV-positive participants had greater odds of mental distress than diabetics (odds ratio = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.41-2.25). HIV-positivity, female sex, lower levels of education, being unemployed, poorer housing conditions and separated, widowed or divorced were associated with higher odds of mental distress (p < 0.05). Mental distress was predicted by HIV-positivity, occupation and current marital status. HIV infection and social inequalities are independent risk factors for mental distress. The odds of having mental distress is higher among PLHIV compared with diabetic patients. Addressing social inequalities might be the critical factor in the control of mental distress among PLHIV. ABBREVIATIONS: ...

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  • Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among professional male long-distance bus drivers in Lagos, south-west Nigeria: a cross-sectional study.

    Posted 2018-02-22 01:39:34 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among professional male long-distance bus drivers in Lagos, south-west Nigeria: a cross-sectional study. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2018 Feb 19;29:1-9 Authors: Amadi CE, Grove TP, Mbakwem AC, Ozoh OB, Kushimo OA, Wood DA, Akinkunmi M Abstract BACKGROUND: Professional drivers are known to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was carried out to highlight these risk factors and their predictors among male long-distance professional bus drivers in Lagos, south-west Nigeria, with a view to improving health awareness in this group. METHOD: Socio-demographic data, anthropometric indices, blood pressure, fasting plasma blood glucose levels and lipid and physical activity profiles of 293 drivers were measured. RESULTS: Mean age of the study population was 48 ± 9.7 years; 71.0 and 19.5% of the drivers used alcohol and were smokers, respectively; and 50.9% were physically inactive. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 41.7 and 21.1%, respectively, while 39.7 and 13.9% were hypertensive and diabetic, respectively. Ninety (31.3%) subjects had impaired fasting glucose levels while 56.3% had dyslipidaemia. Predictors of hypertension were age and body mass index (BMI). BMI only was a predictor of abnormal glucose profile. CONCLUSION: Professional male long-distance bus drivers in this study showed a high prevalence of a cluster of risk factors for CVD. PMID: 29457826 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • Multi-stakeholder perspectives on access, availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in Lagos, Nigeria: A mixed-methods study.

    Posted 2018-02-22 01:39:34 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Multi-stakeholder perspectives on access, availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in Lagos, Nigeria: A mixed-methods study. J Public Health Afr. 2017 Dec 31;8(2):717 Authors: Banke-Thomas A, Wright K, Sonoiki O, Ilozumba O, Ajayi B, Okikiolu O, Akinola O Abstract Globally, Nigeria is the second most unsafe country to be pregnant, with Lagos, its economic nerve center having disproportionately higher maternal deaths than the national average. Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) is effective in reducing pregnancyrelated morbidities and mortalities. This mixed-methods study quantitatively assessed women's satisfaction with EmOC received and qualitatively engaged multiple key stakeholders to better understand issues around EmOC access, availability and utilization in Lagos. Qualitative interviews revealed that regarding access, while government opined that EmOC facilities have been strategically built across Lagos, women flagged issues with difficulty in access, compounded by perceived high EmOC cost. For availability, though health workers were judged competent, they appeared insufficient, overworked and felt poorly remunerated. Infrastructure was considered inadequate and paucity of blood and blood products remained commonplace. Although pregnant women positively rated the clinical aspects of care, as confirmed by the survey, satisfaction gaps remained in the areas of service delivery, care organization and responsiveness. These areas of discordance offer insight to opportunities for improvements, which would ensure that every woman can access and use quality EmOC that is sufficiently available. PMID: 29456825 ...

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  • Surgically Treated Primary Spinal Cord Neoplasms in Southeastern Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-02-22 01:39:34 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Surgically Treated Primary Spinal Cord Neoplasms in Southeastern Nigeria. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2018 Jan-Mar;9(1):137-139 Authors: Chikani MC, Okwunodulu O, Mesi M, Mezue WC, Ohaegbulam SC, Ndubuisi CC Abstract Background: Primary spinal cord tumors are not as frequently encountered as their cranial counterparts. They could present in such an indolent manner that requires a reasonable index of suspicion for their diagnosis to be considered. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the incidence and pattern of primary spinal cord and appendage neoplasms in patients surgically treated in our institution over a decade of practice. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of clinical, radiological, and histopathology profiles of patients surgically treated for primary spinal cord tumor from 2006 to 2016 was carried out. Retrieved data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: Out of 472 spine procedures were performed within the study period 17 (3.6%) cases of histologically proven primary spinal cord tumors were identified. The age of patients ranged between 17 and 77 years with a mean age was 45 years. The male: female ratio was 1:1.1. Motor deficit and pain were the most common presenting symptoms seen in 35.3% and 29.4% of patients, respectively. Meningiomas are the most common histological diagnosis (70.6%), distantly followed by Schwannoma (17.6%). The most common location of the tumors was intradural extramedullary (70.6%). All patients had gross total resection of tumor with no perioperative mortality. Conclusion: Meningioma is the most common surgically treated primary spinal cord tumor in our setting. Surgery is associated with good outcome. PMID: 29456358 ...

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  • Ecological and human health risks arising from exposure to metals in urban soils under different land use in Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-02-22 01:39:33 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Ecological and human health risks arising from exposure to metals in urban soils under different land use in Nigeria. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Feb 19;: Authors: Iwegbue CMA, Martincigh BS Abstract The concentrations of eight metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) were measured in soils under different land use in an urban environment of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. The aim was to provide information on the potential ecological and human health risks associated with human exposure to metals in these soils. The potential ecological risk due to metals in soils of these land use types falls in the range of low to moderate ecological risk with a significant contribution from Cd. The severity of the individual metals to ecological risk in these land use types followed the order Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Mn. The non-carcinogenic risk, expressed in terms of the hazard index (HI), arising through exposure to metals through oral, dermal and inhalation pathways, was greater than 1 for children in the majority of the land use types and less than 1 for adults for all land use types. This indicated that there are considerable non-cancer risks arising from childhood exposure to metals in soils of these land use types. The cancer risk values were within acceptable threshold values indicating a negligible cancer risk for both children and adults exposed to metals in these urban soils. PMID: 29460241 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • The 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak and primary healthcare delivery in Liberia: Time-series analyses for 2010–2016

    Posted 2018-02-20 22:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    by Bradley H. Wagenaar, Orvalho Augusto, Jason Beste, Stephen J. Toomay, Eugene Wickett, Nelson Dunbar, Luke Bawo, Chea Sanford Wesseh Background The aim of this study is to estimate the immediate and lasting effects of the 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak on public-sector primary healthcare delivery in Liberia using 7 years of comprehensive routine health information system data. Methods and findings We analyzed 10 key primary healthcare indicators before, during, and after the EVD outbreak using 31,836 facility-month service outputs from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2016 across a census of 379 public-sector health facilities in Liberia (excluding Montserrado County). All indicators had statistically significant decreases during the first 4 months of the EVD outbreak, with all indicators having their lowest raw mean outputs in August 2014. Decreases in outputs comparing the end of the initial EVD period (September 2014) to May 2014 (pre-EVD) ranged in magnitude from a 67.3% decrease in measles vaccinations (95% CI: −77.9%, −56.8%, ...

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  • Risk and surrogate benefit for pediatric Phase I trials in oncology: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    Posted 2018-02-20 22:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    by Marcin Waligora, Malgorzata M. Bala, Magdalena Koperny, Mateusz T. Wasylewski, Karolina Strzebonska, Rafał R. Jaeschke, Agnieszka Wozniak, Jan Piasecki, Agnieszka Sliwka, Jerzy W. Mitus, Maciej Polak, Dominika Nowis, Dean Fergusson, Jonathan Kimmelman Background Pediatric Phase I cancer trials are critical for establishing the safety and dosing of anti-cancer treatments in children. Their implementation, however, must contend with the rarity of many pediatric cancers and limits on allowable risk in minors. The aim of this study is to describe the risk and benefit for pediatric cancer Phase I trials. Methods and findings Our protocol was prospectively registered in PROSPERO (CRD42015015961). We systematically searched Embase and PubMed for solid and hematological malignancy Phase I pediatric trials published between 1 January 2004 and 1 March 2015. We included pediatric cancer Phase I studies, defined as “small sample size, non‑randomized, dose escalation studies that defined the recommended dose for subsequent study of a new drug in each schedule tested.” We measured risk using grade 3, 4, and 5 (fatal) drug-related adverse events (AEs) and benefit using objective response rates. When possible, data were meta-analyzed. We identified 170 studies meeting our eligibility criteria, accounting for 4,604 patients. The pooled overall objective response rate was 10.29% (95% CI 8.33% to 12.25%), and was lower in solid tumors, 3.17% (95% CI 2.62% to 3.72%), compared with hematological malignancies, 27.90% (95% CI 20.53% to 35.27%); p < 0.001. The overall fatal (grade 5) AE rate was 2.09% (95% CI 1.45% to 2.72%). Across the 4,604 evaluated patients, there were 4,675 grade 3 and 4 drug-related AEs, with an average grade 3/4 AE rate per person equal to 1.32. Our study had the following limitations: trials included in our review were heterogeneous (to minimize heterogeneity, we separated types of therapy and cancer types), and we relied on published data only and ...

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  • Pattern and determinants of self-reported enacted stigma among rural dwellers living with epilepsy attending a tertiary health facility in Enugu State Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-02-20 07:39:30 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Pattern and determinants of self-reported enacted stigma among rural dwellers living with epilepsy attending a tertiary health facility in Enugu State Nigeria. Seizure. 2018 Feb 10;56:60-66 Authors: Ezeala-Adikaibe BA, Achor JU, Aneke E, Ijoma U, Onodugo OD, Orjioke C, Onyekonwu C, Ekenze O Abstract PURPOSE: Epilepsy related stigma is a barrier to recovery and has been linked to a broad range of psychosocial consequences and has the potential to influence the provision of care to people with epilepsy. Understanding the determinants of enacted stigma in epilepsy is relevant in the understanding of the burden of epilepsy in Nigeria. METHOD: Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among rural dwellers receiving treatment for epilepsy in a tertiary referral specialist hospital in Enugu, south east Nigeria. RESULTS: The participants consisted of 108 patients, 63% of whom were males. Most patients 99(91.7%) reported experiencing stigma in the past. The commonest forms of enacted stigma were being regarded as having 'spiritual attack' 88(81.5%) and restraining from interacting with others 49(45.4%). Most individuals who received nonorthodox treatment 55(55.6%) experienced stigma. Severely stigmatized individuals were more likely to be females. Age of onset of epilepsy, use of non-orthodox treatment, seizures occurrence in public places and the presence of physical injuries positively correlated with enacted stigma. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of epilepsy related enacted stigma is high among rural dwellers attending a tertiary medical outpatient clinic in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. PMID: 29453112 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • Prevalence and correlates of hypertension-outcome of a free medical screening in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state, Nigeria, West Africa.

    Posted 2018-02-20 07:39:30 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Prevalence and correlates of hypertension-outcome of a free medical screening in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state, Nigeria, West Africa. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2018 Feb 01;: Authors: Shittu RO, Odeigah LO, Fakorede KO, Sikiru BA, Sule AG, Musah Y, Adeyemi FM Abstract Literature abounds on prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria and urban areas of Oyo state but none in Oke-Ogun geopolitical zone, which constitutes 10 local governments of the 33 in Oyo state, despite the fact that they have high genetic and environmental predisposition to developing high blood pressure. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure and associated risk factors among indigenes of Oke-ogun, Oyo state. A total of 10,000 respondents were recruited using proportionate sampling techniques. Hypertension was defined according to Joint National Committee-8 criteria. The fasting plasma glucose of the respondents were classified as normal (≤6 mmol/L), prediabetes (6.1-6.9 mmol/L), and diabetes (≥7 mmol/L). Body mass index was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m2) and classified as malnutrition/underweight (<16-18.49), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9), and obese (30-≥40). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and binary logistic regression tests at P < .05. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 138 ± 27.81 and 86.13 ± 14.39 respectively. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 38.5%. 64.1% were diabetics. 63.4% had no formal education. Majority (82.95%) earned less than N18,000 ($59) per month. 43.3% had family history of hypertension. There is high prevalence of hypertension among the people of Oke-ogun, in Oyo state. Their low socioeconomic status, low educational background, malnutrition, and genetic predisposition were identified risk factors. PMID: 29452900 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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