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  • Unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-11-15 09:39:35 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Trop Doct. 2018 Nov 12;:49475518809605 Authors: Okunola TO, Ijaduola KT, Adejuyigbe EA Abstract As mother-to-child transmission of HIV is difficult to predict and also hard to prevent in practice, pregnancy among women living with HIV/AIDS (WHA) needs to be taken with considerable aforethought. The prevention of unwanted pregnancy among WHA is therefore a public health issue. The aim of our study was to determine the unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women and the associated factors. Ours was a cross-sectional study involving 425 non-pregnant WHA attending an adult HIV clinic in Nigeria. Interviewer-administered, structured questionnaires designed for the study were used to obtain data. The contraceptive uptake was 47% while the unmet need for contraception was 20%. There were significant associations between unmet need for contraception and age group ( P < 0.001), religion ( P < 0.001), ethnic group ( P < 0.001), knowledge about contraceptives ( P = 0.02), educational status ( P = 0.01) and partners' retroviral status ( P = 0.008) The unmet need for contraception was high. Advocacy programs should perhaps be focused on older women, Christians and those with little or no education. PMID: 30419776 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • Fluctuations in anthropogenic nighttime lights from satellite imagery for five cities in Niger and Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-11-15 09:39:35 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Fluctuations in anthropogenic nighttime lights from satellite imagery for five cities in Niger and Nigeria. Sci Data. 2018 Nov 13;5:180256 Authors: Bharti N, Tatem AJ Abstract Dynamic measures of human populations are critical for global health management but are often overlooked, largely because they are difficult to quantify. Measuring human population dynamics can be prohibitively expensive in under-resourced communities. Satellite imagery can provide measurements of human populations, past and present, to complement public health analyses and interventions. We used anthropogenic illumination from publicly accessible, serial satellite nighttime images as a quantifiable proxy for seasonal population variation in five urban areas in Niger and Nigeria. We identified population fluxes as the mechanistic driver of regional seasonal measles outbreaks. Our data showed 1) urban illumination fluctuated seasonally, 2) corresponding population fluctuations were sufficient to drive seasonal measles outbreaks, and 3) overlooking these fluctuations during vaccination activities resulted in below-target coverage levels, incapable of halting transmission of the virus. We designed immunization solutions capable of achieving above-target coverage of both resident and mobile populations. Here, we provide detailed data on brightness from 2000-2005 for 5 cities in Niger and Nigeria and detailed methodology for application to other populations. PMID: 30422123 [PubMed - in ...

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  • Predictors of Mortality in a Clinic Cohort of HIV-1 Infected Children Initiated on Antiretroviral Therapy in Jos, Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-11-15 09:39:35 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Predictors of Mortality in a Clinic Cohort of HIV-1 Infected Children Initiated on Antiretroviral Therapy in Jos, Nigeria. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5(12): Authors: Ebonyi AO, Oguche S, Meloni ST, Sagay SA, Kyriacou DN, Achenbach CJ, Agbaji OO, Oyebode TA, Okonkwo P, Idoko JA, Kanki PJ Abstract Background: Mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected children initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) though on a decline still remains high in resource-limited countries (RLC). Identifying baseline factors that predict mortality could allow their possible modification in order to improve pediatric HIV care and reduce mortality. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study analyzing data on 691 children, aged 2 months-15 years, diagnosed with HIV-1 infection and initiated on ART between July 2005 and March 2013 at the pediatric HIV clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital. Lost to follow-up children were excluded from the analyses. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to identify predictors of mortality. Results: Median follow-up time for the 691 children initiated on ART was 4.4 years (interquartile range (IQR), 1.8-5.9) and at the end of 2752 person-years of follow-up, 32 (4.6%) had died and 659 (95.4%) survived. The mortality rate was 1.0 per 100 child-years of follow-up period. The median age of those who died was about two times lower than that of survivors [1.7 years (IQR, 0.6-3.6) versus 3.9 years (IQR, 3.9-10.3), p<0.001]. On unadjusted Cox regression, the risk of dying was about three and half times more in children <5 years of age compared to those >5 years (p=0.02) Multivariate modeling identified age as the main predictor of death with mortality decreasing by 24% for every 1 year increase in age (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR)=0.76 [0.62-0.94], p=0.013. Conclusion: The lower mortality rate for our study suggests ...

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  • Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function among HIV-1 Infected Individuals in China, India and Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-11-15 09:39:34 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function among HIV-1 Infected Individuals in China, India and Nigeria. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 Nov 05;: Authors: Jumare J, El-Kamary SS, Magder L, Hungerford L, Umlauf A, Franklin D, Ghate M, Abimiku A, Charurat M, Letendre S, Ellis RJ, Mehendale S, Blattner WA, Royal W, Marcotte TD, Heaton RK, Grant I, McCutchan JA Abstract BACKGROUND: Risk of cognitive impairment is increased among persons with high or low body mass index (BMI) in HIV- and HIV+ populations in resource-rich settings. We examined this association among HIV+ patients in three resource-limited settings. METHODS: This secondary analysis included data of 761 HIV+ volunteers pooled from 3 prospective cohort studies conducted in China (n=404; 53%), India (n=200; 26%) and Nigeria (n=157; 21%). World Health Organization (WHO) weight classifications were based on BMI. T scores, adjusted for demographics and practice effects, were derived from a 7-domain neuropsychological battery. Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) was defined as global deficit score (GDS) of ≥ 0.5. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of NCI at baseline was 27.7% (similar across all cohorts). The overweight/obese and underweight constituted 37.3% and 15.5% of the total participants respectively. In a multivariable logistic regression of pooled longitudinal data, adjusting for clinical and demographic variables, the odds of global neurocognitive impairment were 38% higher among the overweight/obese as compared to normal weight participants (OR: 1.38 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.72]; P=0.005). Similarly, the odds of global neurocognitive impairment were 39% higher among the underweight as compared to normal weight participants (OR: 1.39 [95% CI: 1.03, 1.87]; P=0.029). CONCLUSION: Neurocognitive impairment among HIV-1 infected patients was more prevalent in both overweight/obese and underweight than normal weight individuals in ...

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  • Perception of parenting styles by in-school adolescents in South-West Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-11-15 09:39:34 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Perception of parenting styles by in-school adolescents in South-West Nigeria. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2018 Nov 13;: Authors: Obimakinde AM, Omigbodun O, Adejumo O, Adedokun B Abstract Background Parenting styles can be explained as behavioural strategies parents use to interact with their offspring. It is importance to understand the perception of parenting styles received by adolescents undergoing socio-cognitive development, however, there are few Nigerian studies exploring this topic. Objective To describe the perception of parenting styles received by in-school adolescents in South-West Nigeria. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional multistage study was conducted among students attending public and private schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data was collected by self-administered questionnaires, evaluating socio-demographic characteristics and perception of styles of parenting received by the adolescents. Result The prevalent perceived parenting style was the authoritative style (73.1%) and the least perceived was the permissive (3.8%) style. Female adolescents perceived fathers as being more negligent (65.2%), permissive (66.7%) and authoritarian (56.0%) but less authoritative (40.4%) than male adolescents (p = 0.01). Adolescents in lower social class perceived their mothers as more authoritarian (78.6%) and negligent (72.7%) in contrast to adolescents in higher social class (p = 0.889). Conclusion Perceived parenting style is the tendency of the adolescent to cognizance the behaviour of parents in a particular manner in all situations and develop a perception about their parents. The prevalent authoritative style is the ideal and most desirable style of parenting worldwide, as it describes parents who maintain a balance between high levels of demandingness and responsiveness, consistently supervising their adolescent's behaviour and practicing constructive criticism. Other styles of parenting ...

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  • Offspring outcomes after prenatal interventions for common mental disorders: a meta-analysis

    Posted 2018-11-15 00:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    It is presumed that pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of prenatal common mental disorders can mitigate associated adverse effects in offspring, yet strong evidence for the prophylactic ...

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  • Are smokers who are regularly exposed to e-cigarette use by others more or less motivated to stop or to make a quit attempt? A cross-sectional and longitudinal survey

    Posted 2018-11-14 00:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Concerns have been raised that observing other people using e-cigarettes may undermine motivation to quit by renormalising smoking. This study aimed to explore associations between regular exposure to other ...

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  • Innovation to impact in spatial epidemiology

    Posted 2018-11-14 00:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Spatial epidemiology is a rapidly advancing field, pushing our abilities to measure, monitor and map pathogens at increasingly finer spatiotemporal scales. However, these scales often do not align with the ...

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  • Pattern of blood donation and characteristics of blood donors in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-11-13 13:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Pattern of blood donation and characteristics of blood donors in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2018 Nov;21(11):1438-1443 Authors: Ugwu AO, Madu AJ, Efobi CC, Ibegbulam OG Abstract Background: Despite increasing need for blood donation in medical practice, little is known about pattern of blood donation and characteristics of blood donors in some African populations like Nigeria. This information is necessary in designing strategies and policies for improving blood transfusion services in Africa. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of blood donation and characteristics of blood donors in Enugu, Southeast, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 3377 blood donors at a tertiary hospital in Enugu, Nigeria from May 1, 2016 to April 30, 2017. Information sought included donors' sociodemographic characteristics; type of blood donor: Voluntary nonremunerated donor (VNRD), family replacement donor (FRD), or paid donor (PD); willingness to become VNRD in the future after counseling and education (at point of entry to blood bank) on its benefits to clinical practice; hemoglobin (Hb) level; and transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs). Results: Mean age of blood donors was 28.8 ± 8.5 years, majority were male (3011, 89.2%) and students (1289, 32.8%). FRDs were the highest in number (1998, 59.2%), followed by PDs (746, 22.1%) and finally VNRDs (633, 18.7%). Of the 3377 persons that came for blood donation, 2537 (75.1%) were found eligible to donate while 840 (24.9%) were deferred on account of low Hb (602/3377, 17.8%) or positive infectious screening test (238/3377, 7.0%). The odds of a male donor being a VNRD were about one and half times that of a female donor (582/3011 [19.3%] vs. 51/366 [13.9%]; odds ratio: 1.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.02; P = 0.01). After counseling of FRDs and PDs, majority (54.3%) were willing to become VNRDs ...

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  • The economic burden of malignant and premalignant hematological diseases in Southern Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-11-13 13:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    The economic burden of malignant and premalignant hematological diseases in Southern Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2018 Nov;21(11):1396-1402 Authors: Korubo KI, Okoye HC, Efobi CC Abstract Background: Hematological malignancies are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. They constitute an economic burden for the patients, their relatives, and the society because of the cost associated with their management, which is usually long term. We aimed to determine the total direct cost of managing patients with premalignant hematological disorders (PMHDs) and malignant hematological disorders (MHDs). Materials and Methods: A hospital-based retrospective study was carried out between 1997 and 2015. Data were retrieved from the case notes of adult patients diagnosed with either PMHD or MHD. The total cost of medical care was calculated as the sum of in-patient and out-patient direct cost associated with their management. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: There was a total of 129 patients; 74 (57.4%) males and 55 (42.6%) females with mean age of 45.7 ± 16.3 years and the majority (n = 76, 58.9%) being employed. Males were more affected than the females except in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The commonest MHD was chronic myeloid leukemia with 37 (28.7%) patients. Full blood count was the commonest investigation done, whereas free light chains were the least (n = 2; 1.6%). The total cost of care for the 129 patients was N30,041,900.00 ($82,306.58) with an average total cost of care per patient of N232,882.95 ($638.04). Patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma had the highest mean cost of care per patient (N373,196.30; $1,022.46). The average monthly expenditure per patient was about N70,000 ($190). Conclusion: In our setting, management of CHDs constitutes an economic burden. PMID: ...

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