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  • Estimation of some trace metal pollutants in River Atuwara southwestern Nigeria and spatio-temporal human health risks assessment.

    Posted 2019-11-17 19:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Estimation of some trace metal pollutants in River Atuwara southwestern Nigeria and spatio-temporal human health risks assessment. Chemosphere. 2020 Jan;239:124770 Authors: Emenike PC, Neris JB, Tenebe IT, Nnaji CC, Jarvis P Abstract Over twenty thousand persons rely on water from Atuwara River for drinking and other domestic purposes, hence the need to ascertain the human health risk inherent in such practice. Seventy-two water samples were collected from River Atuwara during the dry and wet seasons of 2018, and the concentration of heavy metals (Pb, As, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd) were measured using ICP-OES. A newly developed human health risk assessment method, HHRISK code was used to estimate the health risks associated with consumption of water from Atuwara River. Results obtained revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the river was as follows: Cd < Ni < Pb < Cr < Cu < As < Zn in the wet season and Cd < Pb < Ni < Cu < Cr < As < Zn during the dry season. Principal component analysis suggested that industrial effluents, agricultural activities and base-rock interaction are responsible for pollution of Atuwara River. The cumulative hazard index (HIcum) obtained was 678.0 ± 36.8 (for adult) and 1392.0 ± 132 (for child) for non-carcinogenic risks. A cumulative carcinogenic risk (CRcum) of 1.01E-1±5.26E-3 and 4.96E-2±5.05E-3 was obtained for adult and children respectively, suggesting that up to 1 in 10 adults and 1 in 20 children may suffer from cancer over their lifetime as a result of consumption and exposure to water from River Atuwara. These results highlight the fact that unavailability of safe drinking water in many parts of the world remains a real and persistent risk which must be tackled. PMID: 31726525 [PubMed - in ...

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  • Toenail Metal Exposures in Fishermen from Bodo City, Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-11-17 19:39:36 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Toenail Metal Exposures in Fishermen from Bodo City, Nigeria. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2019 Nov 14;: Authors: Specht AJ, Dickerson AS, Kponee-Shovein KZ, Nkpaa KW, Weisskopf MG Abstract We conducted exposure assessment using toenails from 20 fishermen living in Bodo City, a community of the Niger delta region in Nigeria. This community has been affected by over 4000 oil spills and environmental disasters. Fishing is the primary source of food and income for individuals in this community. Previous research in Bodo City found elevated metal levels in fish. Toenails were used as a biomarker to investigate the feasibility for use in risk assessment studies in developing countries. The toenails collected had significantly higher manganese levels (median 5.8 µg/g) and lead levels (median 0.98 µg/g) than those reported in more developed countries, comparable levels to those from other low-middle incomes countries. These exposure levels are likely a direct result of exposures from the environmental disasters the community has experienced and would be related to increased risks for many diseases previously associated with heavy metal exposures. PMID: 31728558 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • Neuropathological lesions in the brains of goats in North-Western Nigeria: possible impact of artisanal mining.

    Posted 2019-11-17 19:39:36 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Neuropathological lesions in the brains of goats in North-Western Nigeria: possible impact of artisanal mining. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Nov 15;: Authors: Jubril AJ, Obasa AA, Mohammed SA, Olopade JO, Taiwo VO Abstract Indiscriminate small-scale artisanal gold mining activities were reported to have caused anthropogenic heavy metal environmental pollution in Zamfara State, north-western Nigeria. There is little or no information on the neurotoxic effects and related neuropathological lesions due to environmental pollution in the animal population. Therefore, this work investigated the concentration of heavy metal and associated lesions in the brain of goats around an artisanal mining site in Zamfara. Brain samples were collected from 40 goats at slaughter slabs in Bagega (Zamfara State) while 15 goats with the same demography but without a history of environmental exposure at the time of this study served as controls. The concentration of lead and cadmium in brain tissue and histopathologic changes were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, histology and immunohistochemistry. The metal concentrations were significantly higher in exposed goats than in the unexposed animals. Cresyl violet staining and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry indicated chromatolysis and increased astrocytic activity respectively in the exposed goats. This study is of epidemiological importance as it shows a generalised increase of the metal concentrations in the brain of goats exposed to artisanal mining in Zamfara, north-western Nigeria. This could have health effects on the animals associated with nervous co-ordination, growth and development and as a good sentinel for pathogenesis of the heavy metal exposure. PMID: 31732952 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • Perceived stress and stressors among first-year undergraduate students at a private medical school in Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-11-17 19:39:36 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Perceived stress and stressors among first-year undergraduate students at a private medical school in Nigeria. J Taibah Univ Med Sci. 2019 Oct;14(5):425-430 Authors: Fasoro AA, Oluwadare T, Ojo TF, Oni IO Abstract Objectives: Medical training has long been globally recognised as involving numerous stressors that can affect the well-being of students. This study, the first to be conducted among first-year medical students at a private university in Nigeria, aims to identify factors associated with students' perceived stress. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional design was employed. A semi-structured pretested and validated questionnaire was administered to first-year medical students. The data were analysed using IBM SPSS version 25.0. Descriptive and analytical statistics were presented as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations. The chi-square test was also used to identify the associations between categorical variables. Results: The majority of the respondents were females (72.2%) and Christians (85.8%). Sixty seven percent of the participants perceived medical school as being stressful. More females than males were stressed. Statistically, ethnicity and intrapersonal factors were correlated with perceived stress. Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of perceived stress among first-year medical undergraduate students was high. Students should be prepared on how to cope with stress by developing coping strategies such as healthy lifestyle patterns, availing of social support, engaging in physical activity, and seeking counselling when needed. PMID: 31728140 ...

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  • Microalbuminuria risks and glomerular filtration in children with sickle cell anaemia in Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-11-16 01:39:39 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Microalbuminuria risks and glomerular filtration in children with sickle cell anaemia in Nigeria. Ital J Pediatr. 2019 Nov 12;45(1):143 Authors: Ocheke IE, Mohamed S, Okpe ES, Bode-Thomas F, McCullouch MI Abstract INTRODUCTION: Evidence of kidney damage is observed in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and this continues through adulthood with progression to severe functional impairment in some. One of the earliest features of kidney damage associated with SCA is microalbuminuria. Our objective was to determine the risk factors of microalbuminuria in these children and its relationship with estimated glomerular filtration rate. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional and comparative study involving three hundred and twenty three children with SCA in steady state and equal numbers of apparently healthy age and sex matched haemoglobin AA (HbAA) control, aged 6 months to 18 years. They were consecutively recruited over a 6 month period. RESULT: Microalbuminuria was present in 26% of the study subjects compared with 1.85% of control P = 0.001). Anaemia and high estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) showed strong positive correlation with microalbuminuria (OR = 3.19, CI 0.953-1.116, p = 0.003 and OR = 1.7, CI 1.042-1.066, p = 0.001 respectively). Similarly, eGFR was higher in subjects with SCA than in controls and as well as in those with microalbuminuria compared with those who do not (p = < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The two most important risk factors for microalbuminuria were anaemia and high eGFR. Age category was associated more with microalbuminuria than just age as a variable. Glomerular filtration rate was higher in children with microalbuminuria than those who do not and it was also higher in children with SCA than in control. PMID: 31718702 [PubMed - in ...

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  • Obesity in benign prostatic enlargement: A cross-sectional study comparing sonographic and anthropometric indices of adiposity in a tertiary hospital in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-11-16 01:39:38 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Obesity in benign prostatic enlargement: A cross-sectional study comparing sonographic and anthropometric indices of adiposity in a tertiary hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2019 Nov;22(11):1600-1605 Authors: Asaleye CM, Omisore AD, Onigbinde SO, David RA Abstract Background: Findings from studies on obesity and benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) have been inconsistent. With a previous study done in our facility showing no correlation between anthropometric indices of obesity and BPE, this study aimed at reevaluating the association between obesity and BPE using sonographic indices of abdominal/central obesity. Materials and Methods: Ninety consenting subjects with clinically confirmed BPE had their height and weight [(to calculate body mass index (BMI)] as well as waist and hip circumference [to calculate waist-hip ratio (WHR)] done. The subcutaneous, preperitoneal, and visceral fat thicknesses (SFT, PFT, and VFT, respectively) of these subjects and their prostate volumes were measured on transabdominal Ultrasonography (USS). Transrectal USS was also done to measure the total prostate and transitional zone volumes. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: WHR and waist circumference correlated positively with SFT (r = 0.325, P = 0.002 and r = 0.370, P = 0.000, respectively) and PFT (r = 0.209, P = 0.048 and r = 0.313, P = 0.003, respectively). While BMI correlated positively (r = 0.23, P = 0.029) with transrectal transitional zone volume, all three sonographic indices of adiposity correlated negatively (SFT: r = -0.223, P = 0.035; PFT: r = -0.321, P = 0.002; VFT: r = -0.242, P = 0.021) with transrectal total prostate volume. In addition, PFT correlated negatively with transabdominal prostate volume (r = -0.222, P = 0.037) and transrectal transitional zone volume (r = -0.211, P = 0.046). Conclusion: The relationship of BMI with transrectal ...

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  • Sex-specific prevalence and trends in acute respiratory infection episodes among children less than 5 years in Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-11-16 01:39:38 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Sex-specific prevalence and trends in acute respiratory infection episodes among children less than 5 years in Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2019 Nov;22(11):1590-1599 Authors: Orimadegun AE, Myer L Abstract Background: Biological sex is an important factor that influences childhood morbidity and mortality but its role in acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children is not well understood. We investigated the trends in sex-specific prevalence of childhood ARI episodes and associated factors in Nigerian children from 1990 to 2013. Methods: This secondary analysis used data from the Nigerian Demographic Health Surveys (NDHS) collected in 1990, 1999, 2003, 2008 and 2013. Variables extracted include: two ARI-related questions, household characteristics, children's anthropometry and vaccination status. We defined ARI as maternal report of cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing. Univariate and bivariate analyses were carried out to estimate prevalence of suspected ARI and compared between male and female children. Results: We found an initial increase followed by a decreasing trend in prevalence of ARI-related symptoms among under-5 children; from 6.7% in 1990 to 11.6% in 1999 then to 3.8% in 2013 without consistent sex differences regardless of other factors except malnutrition. In the 2003 survey, more male than female children had ARI among underweight [OR = 1.22 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.43)] and stunted [OR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.43)] children. Similarly, the 2008 survey showed that more male (5.8%) than female (5.4%) children in the wasted category had ARI [OR = 1.13 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.01)]. The highest prevalence of suspected ARI was consistently recorded in the North-East region. Conclusion: The Nigeria Demographic Health Surveys demonstrated no consistent sex differences in burden and trends of childhood pneumonia-like episodes over a 24-year period. Malnutrition has some ...

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  • Transorbital sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter among HIV-Positive patients in Northwestern Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-11-16 01:39:38 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Transorbital sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter among HIV-Positive patients in Northwestern Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2019 Nov;22(11):1570-1575 Authors: Ebisike PI, Habib SG, Hassan S, Suwaid MA, Hikima MS, Saleh MK, Jibo U, Yusuf L Abstract Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a pandemic disease affecting all regions across the globe and Nigeria having the second highest prevalence worldwide. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has profound negative effect on the optic nerve even though (HAART) has improved the health status of the affected individuals and overall reduction in mortality. Imaging modality especially ultrasound has a great role in the assessment of the optic nerve because of its availability, affordability, and easy operability with reliable sensitivity. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Radiology and Ophthalmology, AKTH, Kano, from October 2017 to June 2018. A total of 143 consenting HIV-positive adults age 18-60 years on HAART were recruited. Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) of each eye was measured using 11-14 MHz linear transducer. Ethical approval was obtained from the ethic and research committee of the hospital. Results: The mean ONSD value of the right eye was 3.49 mm ± 1.04 standard deviation (SD) and 3.55 mm ± 1.11 SD for the left eye. The optic nerve diameter was found to be larger on the left eye and increased slightly with age (P < 0.05). There was nonsignificantly higher values of ONSD among female (3.59 mm ± 1.12 SD) when compared with males (3.332 mm ± 0.878) with P value >0.005. Conclusion: ONSD values among HIV-positive patients are significantly higher in the left eye and among female subjects. Also, patients with HIV on HAART have thicker optic nerves when compared with general population in Kano, Nigeria. PMID: 31719279 ...

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  • Assessment of a free maternal and child health program and the prospects for program re-activation and scale-up using a new health fund in Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-11-16 01:39:38 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Assessment of a free maternal and child health program and the prospects for program re-activation and scale-up using a new health fund in Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2019 Nov;22(11):1516-1529 Authors: Onwujekwe O, Obi F, Ichoku H, Ezumah N, Okeke C, Ezenwaka U, Uzochukwu B, Wang H Abstract Background: A Free Maternal and Child Health program (FMCHP) was implemented in 12 states in Nigeria by the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), between 2009 and 2015, using funds from the debt relief gains. It was called the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) NHIS-MDG FMCHP. The program ended with the termination of the MDG in 2015. With the creation of the Basic Health Care Provision Fund (BHCPF) in Nigeria, this study sought to examine the past implementation experiences of the NHIS-MCH project with a view to identifying the enabling and constraining factors to program implementation, and the opportunities for adaptation and program scale-up in Nigeria using the BHCPF. Methods: The study was undertaken in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, and involved review of relevant documents and in-depth interviews with 21 key informants. The program was assessed in themes from the conceptual framework. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: The program enrolled about 1.5 million pregnant women and children during the period of implementation in the country. The respondents perceived the program as pro-poor, efficient, and effective, and led to marked improvement in the functionality of the facilities, availability of services and reduced out-of-pocket expenditure, which led to increased demand and utilization of MCH services. There was inadequate stakeholder consultation, alleged corrupt practices, challenges with registration, issues with counterpart funding and public financing management issues identified. Most respondents supported the idea of using ...

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  • Voluntary non-remunerated blood donation: Awareness, perception, and attitude among potential blood donors in Abakaliki, Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-11-16 01:39:38 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Voluntary non-remunerated blood donation: Awareness, perception, and attitude among potential blood donors in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2019 Nov;22(11):1509-1515 Authors: Ugwu NI, O Oti WJ, Ugwu CN, Uneke CJ Abstract Background: Blood is the most donated tissue in medical practice and a veritable tool in many life-saving situations if used appropriately and judiciously. Despite the increased demand for blood, the supply of safe blood has been inadequate. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the perception and attitude toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation among medical students in Abakaliki. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, between October 2017 and March 2018. Stratified and simple random sampling technique was used to recruit participants from among medical students using pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Results: A total of 158 medical students who participated in the study were made up of 90 (57%) males and 68 (43%) females. The most prevalent age group was 20-25 years. Most of the participants, 151 (95.6%), were single. The proportion of the participants who had good knowledge about voluntary blood donation was 72.8%, while the attitudes of the respondents were positive to most aspects of blood donation considered. However, participants were found to have poor practice of voluntary blood donation as only 56 of 158 (35.4%) had ever donated blood. Conclusion: The majority of the participants have good knowledge and positive attitude toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. However, their practice of voluntary blood donation was poor. Sustained awareness creation and enlightenment is relevant to influence the masses to have better knowledge and positive attitudes toward ...

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