Clicky

Journals »

  • Emotional Difficulties and Experiences of Stigma among Persons with Lymphatic Filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-07-18 01:39:30 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Emotional Difficulties and Experiences of Stigma among Persons with Lymphatic Filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria. Health Hum Rights. 2018 Jun;20(1):27-40 Authors: Abdulmalik J, Nwefoh E, Obindo J, Dakwak S, Ayobola M, Umaru J, Samuel E, Ogoshi C, Eaton J Abstract Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a chronic and often disfiguring condition that predominantly affects the rural poor and leads to social exclusion, stigma, and discrimination. Little is currently known about the emotional difficulties and stigma experiences among persons living with LF in Nigeria. Our study evaluated the emotional difficulties and stigma experienced by persons with LF in Plateau State, Nigeria. We utilized a combination of qualitative data instruments comprising focus group discussions, McGill's Illness Narrative Interviews, and key informant interviews. We transcribed and analyzed the data using a combination of inductive and deductive coding approaches. Sixty-nine respondents were interviewed: 37 females and 32 males. The prevalent community perception of LF was the belief that it was a spiritual problem. Emotional reactions included feelings of sadness, hopelessness, anger, frustration, worry, and suicidal ideation. These experiences, including those of stigma, discrimination, and social exclusion, culminated in difficulties with occupational functioning, marital life, and community participation. Our findings highlight the value of a rights-based approach that emphasizes state and non-state actors' need to provide access to the highest attainable standard of health, including mental health, and to protect persons with LF from stigma, discrimination, and social exclusion. PMID: 30008550 [PubMed - in ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Goal-setting and volitional behavioural change: Results from a school meals intervention with vitamin-A biofortified sweetpotato in Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-07-18 01:39:30 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Goal-setting and volitional behavioural change: Results from a school meals intervention with vitamin-A biofortified sweetpotato in Nigeria. Appetite. 2018 Jul 06;129:113-124 Authors: Lagerkvist CJ, Okello JJ, Adekambi S, Kwikiriza N, Abidin PE, Carey EE Abstract Malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency, is a major public health problem in many developing countries. This study investigated whether priming or self-generation of goals, or whether attention to instrumental or experiential goals together with use of a reminder condition or not, promotes dietary behaviour intentions and change. A set of 556 randomly selected children aged 7-12 in Osun state, Nigeria, participated in an four-week intervention and field experiment in which a meal based on orange-fleshed sweetpotato, rich in pro-vitamin A, was introduced on five occasions as a complement to the existing school meal. Baseline intentions, anticipated feelings and repeated measures of post-consumption and experience were assessed. The analyses included a generalised linear mixed model for consumption and a linear mixed model for feelings and experience. The results confirmed that attention to instrumental goals undermines goal pursuit, while a focus on experiential goals increases the persistence of pursuit. Priming of experiential goals should be recommended, especially because this approach evokes positive feelings after eating. There was no evidence of an effect from repeated pairing of goals with the school meal, but use of planning by stating intentions increased the amount eaten. These results have implications for how school meals programmes should be designed to better align personal motivation with behavioural change in relation to dietary health. PMID: 30008392 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Improving rational use of ACTs through diagnosis-dependent subsidies: Evidence from a cluster-randomized controlled trial in western Kenya

    Posted 2018-07-17 21:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    by Wendy Prudhomme O’Meara, Diana Menya, Jeremiah Laktabai, Alyssa Platt, Indrani Saran, Elisa Maffioli, Joseph Kipkoech, Manoj Mohanan, Elizabeth L. Turner Background More than half of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) consumed globally are dispensed in the retail sector, where diagnostic testing is uncommon, leading to overconsumption and poor targeting. In many malaria-endemic countries, ACTs sold over the counter are available at heavily subsidized prices, further contributing to their misuse. Inappropriate use of ACTs can have serious implications for the spread of drug resistance and leads to poor outcomes for nonmalaria patients treated with incorrect drugs. We evaluated the public health impact of an innovative strategy that targets ACT subsidies to confirmed malaria cases by coupling free diagnostic testing with a diagnosis-dependent ACT subsidy. Methods and findings We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 32 community clusters in western Kenya (population approximately 160,000). Eligible clusters had retail outlets selling ACTs and existing community health worker (CHW) programs and were randomly assigned 1:1 to control and intervention arms. In intervention areas, CHWs were available in their villages to perform malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) on demand for any individual >1 year of age experiencing a malaria-like illness. Malaria RDT-positive individuals received a voucher for a discount on a quality-assured ACT, redeemable at a participating retail medicine outlet. In control areas, CHWs offered a standard package of health education, prevention, and referral services. We conducted 4 population-based surveys—at baseline, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months—of a random sample of households with fever in the last 4 weeks to evaluate predefined, individual-level outcomes. The primary outcome was uptake of malaria diagnostic testing at 12 months. The main secondary outcome was rational ACT use, defined as the proportion ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Short-term association between ambient temperature and acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations for diabetes mellitus patients: A time series study

    Posted 2018-07-17 21:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    by Holly Ching Yu Lam, Juliana Chung Ngor Chan, Andrea On Yan Luk, Emily Ying Yang Chan, William Bernard Goggins Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of death among people with diabetes mellitus (DM) and has been found to occur more frequently with extreme temperatures. With the increasing prevalence of DM and the rising global mean temperature, the number of heat-related AMI cases among DM patients may increase. This study compares excess risk of AMI during periods of extreme temperatures between patients with DM and without DM. Methods Distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNMs) were used to estimate the short-term association between daily mean temperature and AMI admissions (International Classification of Diseases 9th revision [ICD-9] code: 410.00–410.99), stratified by DM status (ICD-9: 250.00–250.99), to all public hospitals in Hong Kong from 2002 to 2011, adjusting for other meteorological variables and air pollutants. Analyses were also stratified by season, age group, gender, and admission type (first admissions and readmissions). The admissions data and meteorological data were obtained from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority (HA) and the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO). Findings A total of 53,769 AMI admissions were included in the study. AMI admissions among DM patients were linearly and negatively associated with temperature in the cold season (cumulative relative risk [cumRR] [95% confidence interval] in lag 0–22 days (12 °C versus 24 °C) = 2.10 [1.62–2.72]), while those among patients without DM only started increasing when temperatures dropped below 22 °C with a weaker association (cumRR = 1.43 [1.21–1.69]). In the hot season, AMI hospitalizations among DM patients started increasing when the temperature dropped below or rose above 28.8 °C (cumRR in lag 0–4 days [30.4 versus 28.8 °C] = 1.14 [1.00–1.31]), while those among patients without DM showed no association with temperature. The differences in ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Carbon pricing, co-pollutants, and climate policy: Evidence from California

    Posted 2018-07-17 21:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    by James K. Boyce, Michael Ash In a Perspective, James Boyce and Michael Ash discuss Lara Cushing and colleagues' research study on the implications of California's policy on carbon ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy and risk of malaria in early childhood: A randomized controlled trial

    Posted 2018-07-17 21:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    by Prasanna Jagannathan, Abel Kakuru, Jaffer Okiring, Mary K. Muhindo, Paul Natureeba, Miriam Nakalembe, Bishop Opira, Peter Olwoch, Felistas Nankya, Isaac Ssewanyana, Kevin Tetteh, Chris Drakeley, James Beeson, Linda Reiling, Tamara D. Clark, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, Bryan Greenhouse, Erika Wallender, Francesca Aweeka, Mary Prahl, Edwin D. Charlebois, Margaret E. Feeney, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya, Grant Dorsey Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (IPTp-DP) has been shown to reduce the burden of malaria during pregnancy compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). However, limited data exist on how IPTp regimens impact malaria risk during infancy. We conducted a double-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the hypothesis that children born to mothers given IPTp-DP would have a lower incidence of malaria during infancy compared to children born to mothers who received IPTp-SP. Methods and findings We compared malaria metrics among children in Tororo, Uganda, born to women randomized to IPTp-SP given every 8 weeks (SP8w, n = 100), IPTp-DP every 8 weeks (DP8w, n = 44), or IPTp-DP every 4 weeks (DP4w, n = 47). After birth, children were given chemoprevention with DP every 12 weeks from 8 weeks to 2 years of age. The primary outcome was incidence of malaria during the first 2 years of life. Secondary outcomes included time to malaria from birth and time to parasitemia following each dose of DP given during infancy. Results are reported after adjustment for clustering (twin gestation) and potential confounders (maternal age, gravidity, and maternal parasitemia status at enrolment).The study took place between June 2014 and May 2017. Compared to children whose mothers were randomized to IPTp-SP8w (0.24 episodes per person year [PPY]), the incidence of malaria was higher in children born to mothers who received IPTp-DP4w (0.42 episodes PPY, adjusted incidence rate ratio ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Nonlinear and delayed impacts of climate on dengue risk in Barbados: A modelling study

    Posted 2018-07-17 21:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    by Rachel Lowe, Antonio Gasparrini, Cédric J. Van Meerbeeck, Catherine A. Lippi, Roché Mahon, Adrian R. Trotman, Leslie Rollock, Avery Q. J. Hinds, Sadie J. Ryan, Anna M. Stewart-Ibarra Background Over the last 5 years (2013–2017), the Caribbean region has faced an unprecedented crisis of co-occurring epidemics of febrile illness due to arboviruses transmitted by the Aedes sp. mosquito (dengue, chikungunya, and Zika). Since 2013, the Caribbean island of Barbados has experienced 3 dengue outbreaks, 1 chikungunya outbreak, and 1 Zika fever outbreak. Prior studies have demonstrated that climate variability influences arbovirus transmission and vector population dynamics in the region, indicating the potential to develop public health interventions using climate information. The aim of this study is to quantify the nonlinear and delayed effects of climate indicators, such as drought and extreme rainfall, on dengue risk in Barbados from 1999 to 2016. Methods and findings Distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNMs) coupled with a hierarchal mixed-model framework were used to understand the exposure–lag–response association between dengue relative risk and key climate indicators, including the standardised precipitation index (SPI) and minimum temperature (Tmin). The model parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework to produce probabilistic predictions of exceeding an island-specific outbreak threshold. The ability of the model to successfully detect outbreaks was assessed and compared to a baseline model, representative of standard dengue surveillance practice. Drought conditions were found to positively influence dengue relative risk at long lead times of up to 5 months, while excess rainfall increased the risk at shorter lead times between 1 and 2 months. The SPI averaged over a 6-month period (SPI-6), designed to monitor drought and extreme rainfall, better explained variations in dengue risk than monthly precipitation data measured in millimetres. Tmin ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • [Corrections] Correction to Lancet Glob Health 2018; 6: e820–21

    Posted 2018-07-16 22:30:01 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Robson M. Use of indications to identify appropriate caesarean section rates. Lancet Glob Health 2018; 6: e820–21—In this article, the copyright line should read “Crown Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.”. This correction has been made as of July 16, ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Widespread arenavirus occurrence and seroprevalence in small mammals, Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-07-16 07:39:31 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Widespread arenavirus occurrence and seroprevalence in small mammals, Nigeria. Parasit Vectors. 2018 Jul 13;11(1):416 Authors: Olayemi A, Oyeyiola A, Obadare A, Igbokwe J, Adesina AS, Onwe F, Ukwaja KN, Ajayi NA, Rieger T, Günther S, Fichet-Calvet E Abstract BACKGROUND: Lassa fever, killing thousands of people annually, is the most reported viral zoonotic disease in Nigeria. Recently, different rodent species carrying diverse lineages of the Lassa virus (LASV) in addition to a novel Mobala-like genetic sequence were detected within the country. Here, screening 906 small mammal specimens from 11 localities for IgG antibodies and incorporating previous PCR detection data involving the same populations, we further describe arenavirus prevalence across Nigeria in relation to host species and geographical location. METHODS: Small mammals were trapped during the period 2011-2015 according to geographical location (endemic and non-endemic zones for Lassa fever), season (rainy and dry seasons between 2011 and 2012 for certain localities) and habitat (indoors, peridomestic settings and sylvatic vegetation). Identification of animal specimens from genera such as Mastomys and Mus (Nannomys) was assisted by DNA sequencing. Small mammals were tested for LASV IgG antibody using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). RESULTS: Small mammals were infected in both the endemic and non-endemic zones for Lassa fever, with a wider range of species IgG-positive (n = 8) than those which had been previously detected to be PCR-positive (n = 3). IgG-positive species, according to number of infected individuals, were Mastomys natalensis (n = 40), Mastomys erythroleucus (n = 15), Praomys daltoni (n = 6), Mus baoulei (n = 5), Rattus rattus (n = 2), Crocidura spp. (n = 2), Mus minutoides (n = 1) and Praomys misonnei (n = 1). Multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis and M. erythroleucus) were the most ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Determinants of condom use among parous women in North Central and South Western Nigeria: a cross-sectional survey.

    Posted 2018-07-16 07:39:30 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Determinants of condom use among parous women in North Central and South Western Nigeria: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Res Notes. 2018 Jul 13;11(1):467 Authors: Ajayi AI, Akpan W Abstract OBJECTIVES: There appears to be an increasing trend of condom use for pregnancy prevention among nulliparous and multiparous women in developing countries. Drawing from a cross-sectional survey involving 1227 women selected using a 3-stage cluster random sampling technique, the study examines the rates of condom use and its determinants among parous women in three states in North Central and South Western Nigeria. RESULTS: The rate of condom use among parous women was 13.8% and 23.2% among women using any form of contraceptives. After adjusting for confounding factors (religion and marital status, socioeconomic status and access to a health facility in the resident community), women aged 26-35 (AOR 2.7; CI 1.6-4.5), urban residence (AOR: 3.6; CI 2.2-5.8), no income (AOR: 2.7; CI 1.4-4.9), living in Ekiti State (AOR: 1.8; CI 1.2-2.8) and having a tertiary level of education (AOR: 4.5; CI 1.3-15.6) were the independent predictors of condom use. There is an increasing trend of condom use among parous women. PMID: 30005715 [PubMed - in ...

    Comments: 0   View more...



(200 symbols max)

(256 symbols max)