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  • Characterization of metals in indoor dusts from electronic workshops, cybercafés and offices in southern Nigeria: Implications for on-site human exposure.

    Posted 2018-05-21 03:39:38 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Characterization of metals in indoor dusts from electronic workshops, cybercafés and offices in southern Nigeria: Implications for on-site human exposure. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 May 15;159:342-353 Authors: Iwegbue CMA, Obi G, Emoyan OO, Odali EW, Egobueze FE, Tesi GO, Nwajei GE, Martincigh BS Abstract The levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Ba, Mn, Zn, Al and Fe were evaluated in indoor dusts from electronic workshops, cybercafés and offices in southern Nigeria. The study was aimed at providing information on the distribution patterns, and the associated risks that may arise from exposure of humans to these metals in indoor dusts from the three work environments. The dust samples were digested with aqua-regia and analyzed for the metal concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The metal concentrations (mg kg-1) in the indoor dusts from these work environments ranged from 0.2 to 20.5 Cd, 0.6-4810 Pb, 8.65-2210 Cr, 1.85-209 Ni, 6.75-2820 Cu, 0.25-19.6 Co, 22.7-597 Mn, 6.65-140 Ba, 43.3-7310 Zn, 1040-16,800 Al and 969-78,300 Fe. The metal distribution patterns in these dust samples followed the order: electronic workshops > cybercafés > offices. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Cu in significant proportions of the dust samples from the electronic workshops and cybercafés surpassed their respective permissible limits in soils. The health risk assessment suggests considerable non-cancer risks arising from childhood contact with Pb in dust from the electronic workshops while no considerable non-cancer risk is associated with the adult and child exposure to dust from the cybercafés and offices. The results indicated that Cr and Pb are the main elements responsible for the non-carcinogenic risk arising from childhood exposure to electronic workshop dusts. The carcinogenic risk due to exposure of humans to metals in these dust samples were ...

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  • Integrated risk mapping and landscape characterisation of lymphatic filariasis and loiasis in South West Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-05-21 03:39:38 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Integrated risk mapping and landscape characterisation of lymphatic filariasis and loiasis in South West Nigeria. Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2018 Feb;3(1):21-35 Authors: Brant TA, Okorie PN, Ogunmola O, Ojeyode NB, Fatunade SB, Davies E, Saka Y, Stanton MC, Molyneux DH, Russell Stothard J, Kelly-Hope LA Abstract Nigeria has the heaviest burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa, which is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. LF is targeted for elimination and the national programme is scaling up mass drug administration (MDA) across the country to interrupt transmission. However, in some regions the co-endemicity of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis) is an impediment due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) associated with the drug ivermectin. To better understand factors influencing LF elimination in loiasis areas, this study conducted a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence and co-distribution of the two infections, and the potential demographic, landscape, human movement, and intervention-related risk factors at a micro-level in the South West zone of Nigeria. In total, 870 participants from 10 communities on the fringe of a meso-endemic loiasis area of Osun State were selected. LF prevalence was measured by clinical assessment and using the rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect W. bancrofti antigen. Overall LF prevalence was low with ICT positivity ranging from 0 to 4.7%, with only 1 hydrocoele case identified. Males had significantly higher ICT positivity than females (3.2% vs 0.8%). Participants who did not sleep under a bed net had higher ICT positivity (4.0%) than those who did (1.3%). ICT positivity was also higher in communities with less tree coverage/canopy height (2.5-2.8%) than more forested areas with greater tree coverage/canopy height (0.9-1.0%). In comparison, loiasis was determined using ...

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  • Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections of dog in Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-05-21 03:39:38 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections of dog in Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria. Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2017 Aug;2(3):97-104 Authors: Idika IK, Onuorah EC, Obi CF, Umeakuana PU, Nwosu CO, Onah DN, Chiejina SN Abstract The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections of dog in Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria was studied retrospectively and prospectively. In the retrospective study, records of all diagnosed helminth infections of dogs brought to the University of Nigeria Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Nsukka from January, 2006 to September 2013 were collated and analyzed. The prospective study was carried out between October 2013 and July 2014 by examination of 263 faecal samples collected per rectum from dogs presented to a purposively selected Veterinary Clinics in Enugu metropolis and the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The results of the 8 year retrospective prevalence study gave an overall prevalence of 56.1% and Ancylostoma species as the most prevalent helminth in the study area (33.2%). Mixed infections with more than one helminth parasite species were recorded in 8.6% of the cases. Annual breakdown of the prevalence data showed that the highest prevalence was recorded in 2009. Breed and age of the dogs were found to significantly influence the prevalence. In the prospective study, an overall prevalence of 51.7% was obtained. Ancylostoma spp. was also found most often in the study area, with a prevalence rate of 33.6%. Mixed infections with more than one helminth parasite species were found in 16.3% of the cases. A strong association was obtained between prevalence and breed of the dogs and also between prevalence and season. Due to the zoonotic nature of most of the encountered parasites and the close association between children and dogs, routine deworming, proper management of dogs and adequate personal hygiene is therefore ...

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  • Evaluating scenarios of locations and capacities for vaccine storage in Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-05-21 03:39:38 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Evaluating scenarios of locations and capacities for vaccine storage in Nigeria. Vaccine. 2018 May 14;: Authors: Hirsh Bar Gai D, Graybill Z, Voevodsky P, Shittu E Abstract Many developing countries still face the prevalence of preventable childhood diseases because their vaccine supply chain systems are inadequate by design or structure to meet the needs of their populations. Currently, Nigeria is evaluating options in the redesign of the country's vaccine supply chain. Using Nigeria as a case study, the objective is to evaluate different regional supply chain scenarios to identify the cost minimizing optimal hub locations and storage capacities for doses of different vaccines to achieve a 100% fill rate. First, we employ a shortest-path optimization routine to determine hub locations. Second, we develop a total cost minimizing routine based on stochastic optimization to determine the optimal capacities at the hubs. This model uses vaccine supply data between 2011 and 2014 provided by Nigeria's National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) on Tuberculosis, Polio, Yellow Fever, Tetanus Toxoid, and Hepatitis B. We find that a two-regional system with no central hub (NC2) cut costs by 23% to achieve a 100% fill rate when compared to optimizing the existing chain of six regions with a central hub (EC6). While the government's leading redesign alternative - no central three-hub system (Gov NC3) - reduces costs by 21% compared with the current EC6, it is more expensive than our NC2 system by 3%. In terms of capacity increases, optimizing the current system requires 42% more capacity than our NC2 system. Although the proposed Gov NC3 system requires the least increase in storage capacity, it requires the most distance to achieve a 100% coverage and about 15% more than our NC2. Overall, we find that improving the current system with a central hub and all its variants, even with optimal ...

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  • Provider and patient perceptions of malaria rapid diagnostic test use in Nigeria: a cross-sectional evaluation.

    Posted 2018-05-21 03:39:38 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Provider and patient perceptions of malaria rapid diagnostic test use in Nigeria: a cross-sectional evaluation. Malar J. 2018 May 16;17(1):200 Authors: Mokuolu OA, Ajumobi OO, Ntadom GN, Adedoyin OT, Roberts AA, Agomo CO, Edozieh KU, Okafor HU, Wammanda RD, Odey FA, Maikore IK, Abikoye OO, Alabi AD, Amajoh C, Audu BM Abstract BACKGROUND: Nigeria commenced a phased programmatic deployment of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) at the primary health care (PHC) facility levels since 2011. Despite various efforts, the national testing rate for malaria is still very low. The uptake of RDT has been variable. This study was undertaken to determine the provider and patient perceptions to RDT use at the PHC level in Nigeria with their implications for improving uptake and compliance. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 120 randomly selected PHCs across six states, across the six-geopolitical zones of Nigeria in January 2013. Health facility staff interviews were conducted to assess health workers (HW) perception, prescription practices and determinants of RDT use. Patient exit interviews were conducted to assess patient perception of RDT from ten patients/caregivers who met the eligibility criterion and were consecutively selected in each PHC, and to determine HW's compliance with RDT test results indirectly. Community members, each selected by their ward development committees in each Local Government Area were recruited for focus group discussion on their perceptions to RDT use. RESULTS: Health workers would use RDT results because of confidence in RDT results (95.4%) and its reduction in irrational use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (87.2%). However, in Enugu state, RDT was not used by health workers because of the pervasive notion RDT that results were inaccurate. Among the 1207 exit interviews conducted, 549 (45.5%) had received RDT test. Compliance rate ...

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  • Religious Perceptions and Attitudes of Men towards Discontinuation of Female Genital Cutting in Nigeria: Evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey.

    Posted 2018-05-21 03:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Religious Perceptions and Attitudes of Men towards Discontinuation of Female Genital Cutting in Nigeria: Evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Afr J Reprod Health. 2018 Mar;22(1):20-28 Authors: Titilayo A, Palamuleni ME, Olaoye-Oyesola JO, Owoeye OM Abstract Men's roles in any patriarchal society and the influence of their religious belief cannot be overemphasized especially in a culturally encrypted matter like female genital cutting (FGC).The study sample consisted of 8,111 men who had previous awareness of FGC from a cross-sectional nationally representative survey in Nigeria. The data took into cognizance the religious belief of the respondents as well as their attitude towards FGC among others. Analytical bivariate and multivariate ordered logistic estimates for FGC discontinuation were considered for the study. Of the total respondents, 29% reported that their religion required FGC for female children. A significantly higher proportion (89.4%; p <0.01) of men whose religion did not require FGC were found subscribing to its discontinuation. Significantly lower odds of FGC discontinuation exist among those whose religious belief requires FGC practice. Religious teachings and beliefs are crucial correlates of men's attitude towards FGC. There is therefore a need to consider the religious beliefs of men when engaging them in strategies to fight FGC. PMID: 29777639 [PubMed - in ...

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  • Survey of bovine fasciolosis burdens in trade cattle slaughtered at abattoirs in North-central Nigeria: The associated predisposing factors and economic implication.

    Posted 2018-05-21 03:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Survey of bovine fasciolosis burdens in trade cattle slaughtered at abattoirs in North-central Nigeria: The associated predisposing factors and economic implication. Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2017 May;2(2):30-39 Authors: Yatswako S, Alhaji NB PMID: 29774279 ...

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  • Correlates of Postpartum Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use in Kano, Northern Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-05-21 03:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Correlates of Postpartum Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health. 2018 Mar;22(1):103-112 Authors: Iliyasu Z, Galadanci HS, Danlami KM, Salihu HM, Aliyu MH Abstract Practices related to resumption of coitus after childbirth remains poorly documented in Nigeria. This study examined factors associated with sexual intercourse, delivery-coitus interval, and contraceptive use among postpartum women attending a tertiary centre in Kano, northern Nigeria. A cross section of 317 women attending immunization, postnatal and family planning clinics within 12 months of childbirth was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Vaginal intercourse was resumed by most women (n=212; 66.9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 61.8%, 72.2%) with delivery-coitus resumption interval (mean ア SD) of 9.6ア5.2 weeks postpartum. The majority (67.9%) resumed sexual activity within 8 weeks of delivery. Nearly two-thirds 65.6% (n=139/212) of the sexually active women reported current use of contraceptives. Onset of postpartum sexual activity was independently associated with mode of delivery adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95%CI)= 1.10 (1.03,1.78), baby's age AOR (95%CI) =2.10 (1.27, 8.70), number of living children AOR (95%CI)=1.21 (1.07,1.79), onset of menstruation AOR (95%CI)=0.34 (0.17,0.69) and co-habitation AOR (95%CI)=0.47 (0.016, 0.14). Contraceptive use was predicted by educational status, sexual activity, baby's age and menstruation. Most women attending maternal and child health clinics resumed sexual intercourse within 2 months of delivery, but only two-thirds used modern contraceptive methods. Contraceptive counseling should commence early, preferably during pregnancy. PMID: 29777647 [PubMed - in ...

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  • Factors Associated with Parental Intent not to Circumcise Daughters in Enugu State of Nigeria: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Posted 2018-05-21 03:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Factors Associated with Parental Intent not to Circumcise Daughters in Enugu State of Nigeria: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Afr J Reprod Health. 2018 Mar;22(1):29-37 Authors: Ilo CI, Darfour-Oduro SA, Okafor JO, Grigsby-Toussaint DS, Nwimo IO, Onwunaka C Abstract This study explored intention of parents not to circumcise daughters in Enugu State, Nigeria using theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework. A survey of 1345 parents was carried out using structured questionnaire with FGM question items based on TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm (SN), perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intention. Intention was dichotomized into two categories and logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the constructs of TPB while controlling for some socio-demographic factors. 70% of respondents did not intend circumcising daughters. Constructs of TPB associated significantly, at p < 0.0001, with intention not to perform FGM on daughters with PBC having the strongest association. Having a post-secondary education (OR = 3.94; CI = 2.73-5.67) and absence of history of FGM in family (OR = 3.39; CI = 2.62-4.39) are the socio-demographic variables most significantly associated with the intention not to circumcise daughters. Homer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics indicated logistic regressions model 1 was significant (p < 0.05) making TPB a good theoretical basis for study of FGM. Intervention activity should focus on improving attitude of parents and especially those with less than post-secondary education and those with cases of FGM in their household. PMID: 29777640 [PubMed - in ...

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  • Assessment of the burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis after five years of mass drug administration for Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic filariasis in Kebbi State, Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-05-21 03:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Assessment of the burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis after five years of mass drug administration for Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic filariasis in Kebbi State, Nigeria. Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2017 May;2(2):21-29 Authors: Oluwole AS, Isiyaku S, Aliero AA, Nwosu C, William A, Elhassan E, Ekpo UF Abstract There is a hypothesis that Mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin and albendazole for the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis could have an impact on the burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in MDA communities. We, therefore, assessed the burden of STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) infections in nine communities from 3 LGAs (two MDA local government areas (LGAs) and one control LGA) in Kebbi State, Nigeria after 5-years (2010-2015) of MDA for onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis. We also administered questionnaire to obtain demographic information and history of MDA in the past five years. The three LGAs are Bagudo (Ivermectin MDA); Zuru (Ivermectin/Albendazole MDA) and Dandi (No MDA). The study was a cross sectional survey. The total number of people that complied with provision of stool samples and questionnaire were 1357 persons; stool samples collected were examined for STH infections in the three LGAs. Zuru LGA had the highest prevalence of STH (41.89, 95% CI: 37.08-46.81) followed by Dandi LGA (24.66, 95% CI: 20.69-28.97) and Bagudo LGA (3.36, 95% CI: 1.97-5.32). Prevalence of STH infection was not significantly different among age group and sex. Geometric mean intensity per gram of infection for both A. lumbricoides and Hookworm were highest in Zuru LGA with (1.16 GMI, 95% CI: 0.97-1.36) and (1.49 GMI, 95% CI: 1.29-1.70) respectively. Treatment coverage was less than 65% from 2010 to 2013 in the intervention LGAs. The study shows that STH is still a public health problem in Zuru LGA (IVM + ALB) and requires MDA of ...

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