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  • Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Selected Drinks from Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Posted 2020-01-22 11:16:40 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Selected Drinks from Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2020 Jan 17;: Authors: Taiwo AM, Aigbodion CO, Ojekunle OZ, Akinhanmi TF Abstract The present study assessed the human health risk of metals in selected drinks from Abeokuta, southwestern Nigeria. Fifteen different brands of drinks (alcoholic, non-alcoholic, herbal and non-herbal) were purchased from notable markets in Abeokuta between June and August, 2018. A total of sixty drink samples were analysed for metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. Human health risks were assessed for cancer risk (CR) and non-carcinogenic indices of hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI). Results showed acidic medium for most of the samples ranging from 3.12 ± 0.29 to 6.14 ± 0.17. The highest concentrations of Fe (5.53 ± 2.81 mg/L) and Mn (6.63 ± 8.33 mg/L) were found in Kunnu and Zobo, respectively. The HQ and HI values of Cu in bottled water indicated non-carcinogenic adverse effects, while the CR of Co in bottled water and bitters demonstrated carcinogenic effects. Regular monitoring of metals in drinks from the study area is recommended. PMID: 31953599 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • Multidrug-Resistance Genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Wound Infections in a Tertiary Health Institution in Osogbo, Nigeria.

    Posted 2020-01-22 11:16:40 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Multidrug-Resistance Genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Wound Infections in a Tertiary Health Institution in Osogbo, Nigeria. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2020 Jan 16;: Authors: Oluseye AA, Jose AO, Catherine AO, Udodiri AB, Makanjuola Ob, Olakunle OJ, Adejoke OY, Olugbenga OA Abstract BACKGROUND: Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) is an ubiquitous opportunistic organism which poses a threat to the management of infections globally. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the current research were to assess the antibiotic resistance profiles as well as Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa associated with wound infections. Presence of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase genes (bla CTX-M, bla SHV and bla TEM) and Carbapenemase genes (bla KPC and blaNDM) were also determined among the isolates. METHODS: Swab samples were collected from 255 patients with wound infections. Bacterial identification was done by standard diagnostic tests. The identity of isolates were confirmed by detection of the exoA gene using the PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and resistance profile was determined using disc diffusion method. Resistance genes were amplified by the PCR method. RESULTS: A total of 235 (92.2%) bacterial isolates were recovered from the wounds of the 255 patients of these, 124 (52.8%) were Gram-negative bacilli while the remaining 111 (47.2%) were Gram-positive cocci. A total of 69 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were recovered from the wound specimens. Imipenem was the most effective antibiotic against these isolates (92.8% isolates were susceptible) while all isolates were resistant to Meropenem, Cefepime, Ticarcillin, Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, Cefotaxime, Ampicillin and Cefpodoxime. All 69 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). Of the isolates selected for PCR, all were positive for ...

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  • HIV coinfections with tuberculosis among HIV-1 infected individuals in old cross river state, Nigeria.

    Posted 2020-01-22 11:16:40 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles HIV coinfections with tuberculosis among HIV-1 infected individuals in old cross river state, Nigeria. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2020 Jan 20;:1-12 Authors: Okonko IO, Ejike IU, Innocent-Adiele C, Cookey TI Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB) are two main global public health threats that dent development in low and middle-income countries. This study evaluated the HIV/TB co-infection rate among HIV-1 infected individuals in old Cross River State, Nigeria. A total of 417 HIV-infected individuals participated in this study, 241 (57.8%) from Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria and 176 (42.2%) from Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. The age range of the 417 HIV-1 positive individuals who participated in the study was 4-72 years with an average age of 39.1 years. Plasma samples were analyzed for HIV and TB using fourth-generation Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent Assay. The CD4 count was enumerated using the Partec CyFlow® Counter. Plasma viral loads (PVL) were determined using the Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 assay. Results showed that 230 (55.2%) of the participants were in the 31-45 years age range. The majority (67.4%) of the HIV-1 infected individuals were females and 32.6% were males. An overall prevalence of HIV/TB coinfection in Old Cross River State, Nigeria was 1.4%, with Akwa Ibom State (0.6%) and Cross River State (1.2%). A higher prevalence of HIV/TB coinfection was observed among females (1.8%) than in males (0.7%). Higher prevalences of HIV/TB coinfections was observed in patients above 45 years of age (2.2%), married (2.3%), tertiary education (1.8%) followed by those with secondary education (1.4%), traders and civil servants (3.1%), patients with CD4 counts 200-349 and ≥500 cells/μl (1.9%), and those with viral load <40 copies/mL (2.7%). This study confirmed the presence of HIV/TB co-infection in old Cross River State, Nigeria. Although the prevalence rate ...

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  • Exploring issues in caregivers and parent communication of sexual and reproductive health matters with adolescents in Ebonyi state, Nigeria.

    Posted 2020-01-22 11:16:40 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Exploring issues in caregivers and parent communication of sexual and reproductive health matters with adolescents in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. BMC Public Health. 2020 Jan 17;20(1):77 Authors: Mbachu CO, Agu IC, Eze I, Agu C, Ezenwaka U, Ezumah N, Onwujekwe O Abstract BACKGROUND: Parent-child communication is an effective tool for fostering healthy sexual and reproductive behaviours among adolescents. However, the topic is underexplored in Nigeria. This study examines how parents and caregivers communicate sexual and reproductive health-related matters with adolescents aged 13-18 years in Nigeria. METHOD: The study was undertaken in six communities in Ebonyi state, Nigeria using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Data were collected through, i) cluster randomized survey of 1057 adolescents aged 13-18 years, ii) twelve sex-disaggregated focus group discussions with adolescents aged 13 to 18 years, and iii) eight in-depth interviews with parents and caregivers. Univariate and bivariate analysis were performed for quantitative data, while qualitative data were analysed using thematic framework approach. RESULTS: Less than half (47.9%) of adolescents in the survey reported ever discussing sex-related matters with anyone. Three-quarters of those who had this discussion did so with a friend/peer and this had significant correlation with sex/gender (p = 0.04). Out of 1057 adolescents who participated in the survey only 4.5% had ever discussed sex-related matters with a parent and this correlated significantly with wealth index (p = 0.003). Findings from qualitative interviews show that sex-related discussions between parents and adolescents are sporadic, mostly triggered by unpleasant occurrences, and consist of, i) information on pubertal changes, ii) warnings against intersex relationships and premarital sex, iii) promotion of abstinence, and iv) warnings against ...

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  • Use of Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System for Human Monkeypox Outbreak, Nigeria, 2017-2019.

    Posted 2020-01-22 11:16:39 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Use of Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System for Human Monkeypox Outbreak, Nigeria, 2017-2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Feb;26(2):345-349 Authors: Silenou BC, Tom-Aba D, Adeoye O, Arinze CC, Oyiri F, Suleman AK, Yinka-Ogunleye A, Dörrbecker J, Ihekweazu C, Krause G Abstract In November 2017, the mobile digital Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System was deployed in 30 districts in Nigeria in response to an outbreak of monkeypox. Adaptation and activation of the system took 14 days, and its use improved timeliness, completeness, and overall capacity of the response. PMID: 31961314 [PubMed - in ...

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  • Schools and their potential to promote mental health for children in Nigeria.

    Posted 2020-01-22 11:16:39 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Schools and their potential to promote mental health for children in Nigeria. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020 Jan 17;: Authors: Bella-Awusah T, Omigbodun O PMID: 31958414 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • Clinical features and aetiology of cerebral palsy in children from Cross River State, Nigeria.

    Posted 2020-01-22 11:16:39 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Clinical features and aetiology of cerebral palsy in children from Cross River State, Nigeria. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Jan 20;: Authors: Duke R, Torty C, Nwachukwu K, Ameh S, Kim M, Eneli N, Onyedikachi A, Aghaji A, Burton K, Dyet L, Bowman R Abstract OBJECTIVE: There are few studies on cerebral palsy (CP) in African children and our study aimed to describe the aetiology, characteristics and severity of CP in children from Nigeria. DESIGN: A population-based study using key informant methodology (KIM) was conducted as part of a clinical research trial. Children aged 4-15 years were clinically assessed for CP. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of CP using KIM was 2.3/1000 children (95% CI 2.0 to 2.5/1000). 388 children were diagnosed with CP, with Gross Motor Function Classification System level 1 in 70 (18.1%), II in 156 (40.2%), III in 54 (13.9%), IV in 54 (13.9%), V in 54 (13.9%). 300/388 (77.3%) had Manual Ability Classification Scale of level 1-3 and 88 (22.7%) of level 4-5. CP types were spastic in 271 (70%), with 60% of these bilateral and 40% unilateral, ataxic 38 (9.8%), dystonic 18 (4.6%), choreoathetoid 29 (7.5%) and unclassifiable 32 (8.3%). Postneonatal risk factors for CP were seen in 140 (36.1%) children including malaria with seizures 101/140 (72.1%), malaria with coma 21/140 (15.0%), meningitis 12/140 (8.6%), tuberculosis 2/140 (1.4%), sickle cell disease 3/140 (2.2%), HIV 1/221 (0.7%). Prenatal/perinatal risk factors were seen in 248 (63.9%%), birth asphyxia 118 (47.6%) and clinical congenital rubella syndrome 8 (3.3%) and hyperbilirubinaemia 59 (23.8%) were identified as preventable risk factors for CP. CONCLUSION: The profile of CP in this population is similar to that found in other low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Some risk factors identified were preventable. Prevention and management strategies for CP designed for LMIC are needed. ...

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  • Detection of Hepatitis C virus and the risk of transmission among pregnant and nursing mothers from rural and urban communities in Kogi State, Nigeria.

    Posted 2020-01-22 11:16:39 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Detection of Hepatitis C virus and the risk of transmission among pregnant and nursing mothers from rural and urban communities in Kogi State, Nigeria. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2020 Jan 20;:1-14 Authors: Ifeorah IM, Bakarey AS, Akubo AO, Onyemelukwe FN Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with liver complicated diseases resulting in end-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Although vertical transmission from mother to child serves as one of the routes of HCV acquisition in children, yet HCV infection in pregnant women and children is still underappreciated in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, this study investigated the burden of HCV, associated risk factors, and viremia among antenatal and postnatal clinic attendees in the rural and urban communities of Kogi State, Nigeria. Atotal of 176 blood samples were collected from 78 (44.32%) consenting breastfeeding (nursing) mothers and 98 (55.8%) pregnant mothers (age ranged 18-47 years) (SD = +12.1; Median = 26.3) and tested for anti-HCV by ELISA technique. All anti-HCV-positive samples were retested by Taq one-step RT-PCR technique for viral RNA (viremia) detection. The bio-socio-demographic variables of the participants were correlated with the test results, using an IBM SPSS version 21 and MEOP 2010. Ameasure of goodness was considered significant at P< 0.05 using a95% confidence interval. This study found an overall rate of 4.6% for HCV and 2.2% (4/176) viremia indicating both active and passive infections. HCV rate was higher among the civil servants (2.3%; CI = -0.25-2.91; P= 0.241) and peaked among the age group 31-35 years (2.3%; CI = 0.183-2.182; P= 0.293). Various risk factors identified included, relatively high HCV rates during first trimester (1.7%; CI = -2.2-3.61; P= .047), ear/nose piercing (4.6%; CI = -46.83-54.82; P= 0.157), seropositivity among the married (3.9%; CI = -3.36-7.3567; P= 0.238) and urban dwellers (2.8%; CI = ...

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  • Isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis: A problem we can no longer ignore

    Posted 2020-01-21 22:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    by Giorgia Sulis, Madhukar Pai Giorgia Sulis and Madhukar Pai discuss the global distribution, and approaches to diagnosis and treatment, of isoniazid-resistant ...

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  • Prevalence and genetic profiles of isoniazid resistance in tuberculosis patients: A multicountry analysis of cross-sectional data

    Posted 2020-01-21 22:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    by Anna S. Dean, Matteo Zignol, Andrea Maurizio Cabibbe, Dennis Falzon, Philippe Glaziou, Daniela Maria Cirillo, Claudio U. Köser, Lice Y. Gonzalez-Angulo, Olga Tosas-Auget, Nazir Ismail, Sabira Tahseen, Maria Cecilia G. Ama, Alena Skrahina, Natavan Alikhanova, S. M. Mostofa Kamal, Katherine Floyd Background The surveillance of drug resistance among tuberculosis (TB) patients is central to combatting the global TB epidemic and preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Isoniazid and rifampicin are two of the most powerful first-line anti-TB medicines, and resistance to either of them increases the risk of treatment failure, relapse, or acquisition of resistance to other drugs. The global prevalence of rifampicin resistance is well documented, occurring in 3.4% (95% CI 2.5%–4.4%) of new TB patients and 18% (95% CI 7.6%–31%) of previously treated TB patients in 2018, whereas the prevalence of isoniazid resistance at global and regional levels is less understood. In 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a modified 6-month treatment regimen for people with isoniazid-resistant, rifampicin-susceptible TB (Hr-TB), which includes rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and levofloxacin. We estimated the global prevalence of Hr-TB among TB patients and investigated associated phenotypic and genotypic drug resistance patterns. Methods and findings Aggregated drug resistance data reported to WHO from either routine continuous surveillance or nationally representative periodic surveys of TB patients for the period 2003–2017 were reviewed. Isoniazid data were available from 156 countries or territories for 211,753 patients. Among these, the global prevalence of Hr-TB was 7.4% (95% CI 6.5%–8.4%) among new TB patients and 11.4% (95% CI 9.4%–13.4%) among previously treated TB patients. Additional data on pyrazinamide and levofloxacin resistance were available from 6 countries (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Pakistan, the Philippines, and South ...

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