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  • Regional variations in the use of postnatal care in Nigeria: a spatial analysis.

    Posted 2019-07-23 13:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Regional variations in the use of postnatal care in Nigeria: a spatial analysis. Women Health. 2019 Jul 22;:1-16 Authors: Ononokpono DN, Gayawan E, Adedini SA Abstract Maternal health outcomes vary considerably in Nigeria, with maternal mortality ratio ranging from 165 per 100,000 live births in the South-west to 1549 per 100,000 live births in the North-east. One important maternal health indicator is an adequate use of postnatal care (PNC); however, the evidence is sparse on its spatial distribution across regions in Nigeria. This paper thus examined the spatial distribution of uptake of postnatal care in Nigeria using data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, with a sample of 12,127 women aged 15-49 years. The Bayesian-structured additive regression of the logit model was used to examine the spatial relationships. The results revealed a north-south divide in the use of postnatal care, with higher PNC uptake established in the latter. Interestingly, results showed significant intra-region residual spatial variations with higher PNC use in Yobe and Bauchi in North-east Nigeria compared to other states within the region. The findings indicate the need for policymakers to develop state- and region-specific health policy and intervention programs to address the inequity in postnatal care coverage and usage across regions in Nigeria. PMID: 31328689 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • The yellow fever vaccination certificate loophole in Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-07-23 13:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles The yellow fever vaccination certificate loophole in Nigeria. Lancet. 2019 Jul 20;394(10194):203-204 Authors: Adepoju P PMID: 31327359 [PubMed - in ...

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  • Prevalence and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infection in local breed of dogs in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-07-23 13:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Prevalence and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infection in local breed of dogs in Enugu State, Nigeria. Vet World. 2019 May;12(5):729-734 Authors: Eze UU, Ezeh IO, Nzeakor TA, Attama SC, Ezenduka EV, Onah DN Abstract Aims: Cryptosporidiosis is an important zoonotic disease of major public and veterinary concern. The disease affects humans and a variety of animal species including the domestic dog. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infection in local breed of dogs from different homes and those presented at veterinary hospitals and clinics in Enugu State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 203 fresh fecal samples were collected from domestic dogs in six local government areas in Enugu State from February 2015 to August 2015. All the samples were examined using the formol-ether sedimentation method. Fecal smears were then stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and examined under direct light microscopy. Results: A total of 74 (36.5%) dogs were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. There was a strong association (p<0.05) between the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and management practices. However, there was no statistically significant association (p>0.05) between the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and age, sex, and fecal consistency. Conclusion: The findings of this work suggest that domestic dogs in Enugu State harbor and shed Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the environment, especially those managed semi-intensively. Such fecal shedding is particularly so and of greater zoonotic and epidemiological importance in animals that do not show clinical signs and therefore not treated. They, therefore, pose a greater public health risk, especially to immune-compromised humans and animals. Public education on the zoonotic implication of this protozoan ...

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  • Study on prevalence, clinical presentation, and associated bacterial pathogens of goat mastitis in Bauchi, Plateau, and Edo states, Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-07-23 13:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Study on prevalence, clinical presentation, and associated bacterial pathogens of goat mastitis in Bauchi, Plateau, and Edo states, Nigeria. Vet World. 2019 May;12(5):638-645 Authors: Danmallam FA, Pimenov NV Abstract Aim: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and clinical presentations of different forms of mastitis and mastitis-causing pathogens in lactating goats in Bauchi, Plateau, and Edo states, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 quarters from 250 lactating goats of Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf breeds during the lactation period were clinically examined. Clinical mastitis was detected by gross signs of udder infection during physical examination and abnormal milk, whereas subclinical mastitis (SCM) was recognized using California mastitis test. The bacterial pathogens were identified by morphology, hemolysis, gram staining, and biochemical tests such as catalase, oxidase, coagulase, reaction on sulfite, indole, and motile medium, and fermentation of sugars. Results: The overall prevalence of mastitis in goats was found to be 101 (40.4%), of which 8% (20/250) were clinical, and 32.4% (81/250) were SCM cases. The quarter level prevalence was 29.4% (145/493), comprising 5.9% (29/493) clinical and 23.2% (116/493) subclinical forms of mastitis. In addition, 1.4% (7/500) of teats were found to be blind on the clinical examination of the udder and teat. Several regional inflammatory reactions and abnormalities in milk were found in 69% and 100% of the cases, respectively. Moreover, some indications of generalized signs such as fever, reduction in appetite, increase in respiration, and pulse rate per minute were recorded in 100%, 75%, 85% and 80% of the cases, respectively. The predominant bacterial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (20.0%), followed by Escherichia coli (15.5%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (11.0%), and the least isolated ...

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  • Regional variation and demographic factors associated with knowledge of malaria risk and prevention strategies among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-07-23 13:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Regional variation and demographic factors associated with knowledge of malaria risk and prevention strategies among pregnant women in Nigeria. Women Health. 2019 Jul 22;:1-17 Authors: Iyanda AE, Osayomi T, Boakye KA, Lu Y Abstract Pregnant women and children are the most vulnerable populations for malaria infection. Yet, knowledge of risk, and preventive measures are poor among this population. Using the 2015 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey, we applied logit link function to estimate the associations of wealth status, educational attainment, and region of residence with malaria risk knowledge and prevention strategies (using a treated mosquito net and malaria drugs) among 739 Nigerian pregnant women aged 15-49 years. Urban women who had obtained a secondary school education (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-4) or higher (aOR = 8.31; 95% CI 3.2-22) had more knowledge of malaria risk. Urban women in the South-West (aOR = 5.02; [CI] 2.02-12.50) and South-East (aOR = 2.68; 95% CI 1.19-6.06) were more likely to use treated mosquito nets during pregnancy. Women in the urban South-West (aOR = 4.04; 95% CI 1.5-11) were more likely to use malaria drugs during pregnancy than those in the North-Central. A wide regional disparity in the knowledge of malaria risks and use of preventive measures exists. Thus, promoting equal access to malaria preventive measures as well as improving knowledge about malaria transmission by mosquitoes should be considered as essential components of ongoing malaria control and elimination efforts in Nigeria. PMID: 31327307 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • Behaviour settings theory applied to domestic water use in Nigeria: A new conceptual tool for the study of routine behaviour.

    Posted 2019-07-23 13:39:37 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Behaviour settings theory applied to domestic water use in Nigeria: A new conceptual tool for the study of routine behaviour. Soc Sci Med. 2019 Jul 08;235:112398 Authors: Curtis V, Dreibelbis R, Buxton H, Izang N, Adekunle D, Aunger R Abstract RATIONALE: Many behaviours relevant to public health are part of everyday routines. However, few tools exist to study such behaviours. Here we re-introduce the behaviour setting, an ecological psychological concept developed in the 1950s, as an approach to the study of routine behaviour. The setting concept bridges theoretical and applied approaches in sociology, psychology and social practice; its components include stage, infrastructure, props, roles, norms, competencies, objectives and resultant routines. METHODS: We applied settings theory to health-related water use behaviour in rural Nigeria. We captured the dimensions of water use behaviour settings in 23 households at varying distances from newly-introduced kiosks selling purified water. RESULTS: We found that routines concerning drinking, laundering, dish washing and handwashing were stable in their settings, varying little between households or by type of water source. Hygiene routines were suboptimal but drinking water was carefully segregated. The majority of water use behaviour was governed, not by an immediate desire to maximise health, but by long-established routines embedded in the social, technical and physical environment. Water kiosks are making only marginal improvements to the quantity and quality of water being used in homes. CONCLUSIONS: Improving public health will require the disruption of settings, for example, through bringing water infrastructure directly to the home, through the sale of new props that facilitate hygienic routines, or in the disruption of gender roles via the promotion of new norms. Settings are an ecologically valid, meso-level ...

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  • Estimated incidence and Prevalence of noma in north central Nigeria, 2010-2018: A retrospective study.

    Posted 2019-07-23 13:39:36 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Estimated incidence and Prevalence of noma in north central Nigeria, 2010-2018: A retrospective study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Jul 22;13(7):e0007574 Authors: Bello SA, Adeoye JA, Oketade I, Akadiri OA Abstract BACKGROUND: Noma is a spreading and fulminant disease believed to be native to Sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade and associated with low socioeconomic status of citizens of the region. Within this noma belt, most epidemiological reports regarding the disease have emanated from the north western region of Nigeria. However, our indigenous surgical mission encountered a substantial number of cases of noma and post-noma defects noteworthy of epidemiological representation across north central Nigeria. METHODS: All noma cases encountered within the 8-year study period were included and divided based on clinical signs into acute and sequelae groups. Incidence estimation was based on acute/recently active cases and was calculated using the statistical method proposed by the WHO Oral Health Unit (1994). Period prevalence of noma was calculated considering the population at risk in the zone. FINDINGS: A total of 78 subjects were included in the study with age ranging from 2-75 years. Twelve subjects (15.4%) presented with acute disease while 66 (84.6%) had various forms of post-noma defects. The estimated incidence of noma in the north central zone was 8.3 per 100000 with a range of 4.1-17.9 per 100000 across various states. Period prevalence of noma which incorporated all cases seen within the study period was 1.6 per 100000 population at risk. CONCLUSION: Although noma may be more prevalent in the north western region of Nigeria, substantial number of cases occurs within the north central zone which calls for deliberate public awareness campaign on disease risk factors and prevention, and education of primary health-care providers. PMID: 31329580 [PubMed - ...

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  • Low serum IGF1 is associated with hypertension and predicts early cardiovascular events in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Posted 2019-07-22 00:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Since low insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 is often linked to inflammation, we analyze whether serum levels of IGF1 are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a ...

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  • Impact of vaccine stockouts on immunization coverage in Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-07-21 19:39:35 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Impact of vaccine stockouts on immunization coverage in Nigeria. Vaccine. 2019 Jul 15;: Authors: Gooding E, Spiliotopoulou E, Yadav P Abstract Improving immunization coverage requires creating reliable supply of vaccines and immunization supplies; trained and incentivized health workers; and strategies to improve the demand for immunization. Yet, the interplay of demand and supply side factors on immunization coverage has not been evaluated in literature with data. We use data from Nigeria and a mixed-effects general linear model to estimate the effect of vaccine availability on routine immunization coverage and to identify demand and health system factors which affect this relationship. We find that when vaccine stockouts occur at Local Government Area stores in Nigeria, they significantly decrease the number of children immunized, and for most vaccines, the effect lasts for several months after a stockout. Some of the demand lost when a stockout occurs is recovered over the following six months as children catch up with the regimen. The magnitude of the impact varies across different vaccines. PMID: 31320215 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • An information-motivation-behavioural skills analysis of long-lasting insecticidal net use among pregnant women in a hospital in North-Eastern Nigeria.

    Posted 2019-07-21 19:39:35 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles An information-motivation-behavioural skills analysis of long-lasting insecticidal net use among pregnant women in a hospital in North-Eastern Nigeria. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2019 Jul 18;19(1):157 Authors: Balami AD, Said SM, Zulkefli NAM, Bachok N, Balami EL Abstract BACKGROUND: Sleeping under a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is recommended for all pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, due to the high prevalence of malaria infection and its associated complications in the region. Despite this, LLIN use has still remained sub-optimal among pregnant women in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Understanding the interplay of factors influencing this important health behaviour would guide the development of interventions to promote its adoption. METHODS: Data was collected from 380 randomly selected antenatal care attendees of a hospital in Maiduguri, using structured questionnaires. This data was then used to test the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model, for model fit, and interrelations among the constructs, using the structural equation modelling analysis with Smart-PLS. RESULTS: Information and motivation were significantly related to behavioural skills (r = 0.29, p < 0.001 and r = 0.37, p < 0.001, respectively); and also to behaviour (r = 0.22, p < 0.001 and r = 0.11, p = 0.033 respectively). Behavioural skills however, did not significantly relate to behaviour (r = 0.03, p = 0.278). CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the potential usefulness of the IMB model in guiding interventions for promoting LLIN use among this group. More emphasis should also be laid on boosting levels of information and motivation among the target group. PMID: 31319810 [PubMed - in ...

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