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  • Gross pathology, physiological and toxicological responses in relation to metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) burden in tilapia species from Ogun River, Nigeria.

    Posted 2017-06-25 11:40:39 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Gross pathology, physiological and toxicological responses in relation to metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) burden in tilapia species from Ogun River, Nigeria. Mar Environ Res. 2017 Jun 08;: Authors: Ibor OR, Adeogun AO, Chukwuka AV, Arukwe A Abstract We have investigated gross pathology, physiological (steroid precursors) and toxicological responses (oxidative stress and phase II biotransformation) in relation to tissue contaminant burden in Tilapia species along the entire length (320 km) of Ogun River, Nigeria. The Ogun River is the longest and largest river in Southwestern Nigeria located along heavily industrialized cities and receives complex mixtures of effluents. A total of 1074 tilapias were collected from three sampling points (Abeokuta, Isheri and Ikorodu) and from an upstream control point (Igboho) and evaluated for gross pathological changes, hepatic transcript levels for oxidative stress and phase II biotransformation responses. Trace metal concentrations and POPs in muscle samples were analyzed using ICP-MS and GC-MS respectively. Evaluation of gross pathological changes showed a 50-, 33-, 17 and 0% prevalence of hepatic tumors at the Ikorodu, Abeokuta, Isheri and Igboho sites, respectively. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol and pregnenolone showed apparent significant decreases at downstream sites of the control point in both male and female fish (except for pregnenolone levels of male fish at Ikorodu). Inversely, gst, ugt-1, ZuCu-sod and sod significantly increased in fish collected from downstream sites, compared with the control site and these increases paralleled the significant increase in trace metal and POPs concentrations at these sites. PCA revealed a site related association between measured toxicological responses and contaminant burden, indicating a potential cause-and-effect relationship. Thus, the possible adaptation of Ogun River Tilapia species ...

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  • Sociodemographic factors associated with female genital cutting among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.

    Posted 2017-06-24 11:39:49 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Sociodemographic factors associated with female genital cutting among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2017 Jun 22;:1-6 Authors: Ojo TO, Ijadunola MY Abstract OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of female genital cutting (FGC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria and identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the practice. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was carried out in 38,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years). RESULTS: The prevalence of FGC among respondents was almost 25%, most of whom (82%) had undergone the procedure when they were under 5 years of age. Traditional circumcisers performed 72.2% of all procedures. Type 2 was the common form (62.6%) of FGC. Almost a quarter of respondents (23.1%) wanted the practice to continue. Women aged 45-49 years were approximately twice as likely to have undergone FGC compared with women aged 15-19 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.99, 2.92; p < .001). Women from parts of Nigeria other than the North East zone were significantly more likely to have experienced FGC (p < .001). Women of Yoruba ethnicity were significantly more likely to have experienced FGC compared with women of Hausa/Fulani ethnicity (OR 4.86; 95% CI 3.03, 8.12; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings have programmatic implications for ending the practice of FGC in Nigeria. Elimination efforts should be intensified among women of Yoruba ethnicity. To instigate behavioural change, communication interventions should particularly target residents in parts of Nigeria other than the North East zone. PMID: 28641026 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • A review of 640 Oral squamous cell carcinoma cases in Nigeria.

    Posted 2017-06-24 11:39:49 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles A review of 640 Oral squamous cell carcinoma cases in Nigeria. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017 Jun;9(6):e767-e771 Authors: Lawal AO, Adisa AO, Effiom OA Abstract BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent malignant neoplasm in the oral cavity and accounts for 70% to 90% of all oral malignant neoplasms. The aim of this study was to examine the demographic distribution of OSCC in five Tertiary Health centres in Nigeria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cases diagnosed as OSCC during the period from 1970 -2014 were retrieved from the records of five teaching hospitals in Nigeria. Hematoxylin and eosin stained histological slides of all cases that had a diagnosis of OSCC were reviewed for confirmation and inclusion. Data from all the centers was collated at the University College Hospital, Ibadan by 2 researchers. The data was entered into and analyzed with the SPSS for Windows (version 20.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Simple descriptive and comparative analyses were done, with the test of statistical significance set at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 640 cases of OSCC were seen out of 1560 oral malignant neoplasms representing 41% of all the oral malignancies seen. The mean age of occurence of OSCC was 55.5 (±17.0) years and a peak age incidence in the sixth and seventh decades of life. OSCC occurred more in males (60.9%) than females (39.1%) with a male: female ratio of 1.6:1. The well differentiated OSCC with 309 (48.3%) cases, was the most common grade, while the moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated OSCC accounted for 232 (36.2%) and 92 (14.4%) cases respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that OSCC is more common in males, most commonly seen in the 60-69 age group and the commonest site of occurrence was the mandibular mucosa. The well differentiated OSCC was the most common histology sub-type. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, tongue, ...

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  • The effect of internal migration, individual and contextual characteristics on contraceptive use among Nigeria women.

    Posted 2017-06-24 11:39:48 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles The effect of internal migration, individual and contextual characteristics on contraceptive use among Nigeria women. Health Care Women Int. 2017 Jun 23;:0 Authors: Akinyemi JO, Odimegwu CO, Adebowale AS Abstract We investigated the relation of internal migration to contraceptive use and adjusted for individual and contextual (community) characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted to nationally representative data on 28876 women from 884 communities in Nigeria. Only about 1 out of every 10 women (10.4%) currently used a contraceptive method. Contraceptive prevalence according to migration status were: rural-urban (12.5%), urban-rural (13.8%), rural non-migrants (6.2%) and urban non-migrants (17.1%). The relationship between internal migration and contraceptive use was fully explained by individual and community characteristics. Programmes aimed at increasing contraceptive prevalence should address contextual challenges alongside socio-economic factors. PMID: 28644720 [PubMed - as supplied by ...

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  • [Correspondence] Christiana Figueres joins The Lancet Countdown—delivering on the promise of Paris

    Posted 2017-06-24 00:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    The 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change marked historic progress for the planet and human health. Signatories agreed to limit global temperature rise to “well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels”; redouble a global commitment of financial flows to developing countries of US$100 billion annually by 2020; and created a mechanism to increase ambitious action.1 Although inaction threatens to undermine 50 years of progress in public health, meeting the Paris Agreement's ambitions presents the greatest global health opportunity of this ...

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  • Methylome analysis of extreme chemoresponsive patients identifies novel markers of platinum sensitivity in high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    Posted 2017-06-23 00:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Despite an early response to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), the majority of patients will relapse with drug-resistant disease. Aberrant epigenetic ...

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  • Household Response to Inadequate Sewerage and Garbage Collection Services in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Posted 2017-06-22 13:39:32 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Household Response to Inadequate Sewerage and Garbage Collection Services in Abuja, Nigeria. J Environ Public Health. 2017;2017:5314840 Authors: Abubakar IR Abstract Provision of sanitation and garbage collection services is an important and yet challenging issue in the rapidly growing cities of developing countries, with significant human health and environmental sustainability implications. Although a growing number of studies have investigated the consequences of inadequate delivery of basic urban services in developing countries, few studies have examined how households cope with the problems. Using the Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect (EVLN) model, this article explores how households respond to inadequate sewerage and garbage collection services in Abuja, Nigeria. Based on a qualitative study, data were gathered from in-depth interviews with sixty households, complemented with personal observation. The findings from grounded analysis indicated that majority (62%) and about half (55%) of the respondents have utilized the informal sector for sewerage services and garbage collection, respectively, to supplement the services provided by the city. While 68% of the respondents reported investing their personal resources to improve the delivery of existing sewerage services, half (53%) have collectively complained to the utility agency and few (22%) have neglected the problems. The paper concludes by discussing the public health and environmental sustainability implications of the findings. PMID: 28634496 [PubMed - in ...

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  • Occurrence, removal and health risk assessment of phthalate esters in the process streams of two different wastewater treatment plants in Lagos and Ogun States, Nigeria.

    Posted 2017-06-22 13:39:31 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Related Articles Occurrence, removal and health risk assessment of phthalate esters in the process streams of two different wastewater treatment plants in Lagos and Ogun States, Nigeria. Environ Monit Assess. 2017 Jul;189(7):345 Authors: Olujimi OO, Aroyeun OA, Akinhanmi TF, Arowolo TA Abstract Phthalate esters (PEs) are one of the environmentally active organic pollutants capable of causing endocrine disruption. The levels of PE congeners were determined in the influent and effluent from Covenant Oxidation Pond (COP) and Ikeja Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWWTP). Standard methods were adopted for determining the physical and chemical parameters of the water samples. The water samples for PE congener's determination were collected, acidified and stored at 4 °C prior to liquid-liquid extraction and analysis by gas chromatograph. The possible health risk associated with the usage of effluent-polluted river water was also investigated. The pH and temperature ranges were within the Federal Ministry of Environment (FME) 2001 guideline limits while the dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were above the limits. The IWWTP performed better at removing PEs at 54% compared to 43.3% on average at COP. The health risk of individual PE congener showed no non-cancer effects (HQ) as the values varied from 5.01E-05 (DAP) to 1.52E-02 (DEHP) for adults and 1.17E-04 (DAP) to 3.76E-03 (DBP) for children at COP, while at IWWTP, it ranged from 8.06E-05 (DIBP) to 1.09E-02 (DEHP) for adults and 5.68E-04 (MMP) to 2.54E-02 (DEHP) for children. Notwithstanding, the usage of effluent-polluted river water by local communities downstream may result in carcinogenic effects due to the cumulative effects of the PE congeners as the values obtained for adults and children for the ingestion and dermal routes for the two waste process streams ranged from 4.67E-06 (IWWTP) to 6.22E-05 (IWWTP) and 2.18E-05 (IWWTP) to ...

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  • Influence of the number and timing of malaria episodes during pregnancy on prematurity and small-for-gestational-age in an area of low transmission

    Posted 2017-06-21 00:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    Most evidence on the association between malaria in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes focuses on falciparum malaria detected at birth. We assessed the association between the number and timing of ...

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  • Validity of a minimally invasive autopsy for cause of death determination in stillborn babies and neonates in Mozambique: An observational study

    Posted 2017-06-20 21:00:00 by: The HealthFolk Team

    by Clara Menendez, Paola Castillo, Miguel J. Martínez, Dercio Jordao, Lucilia Lovane, Mamudo R. Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Fabiola Fernandes, Tacilta Nhampossa, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Mireia Navarro, Isaac Casas, Paula Santos Ritchie, Sonia Bandeira, Sibone Mocumbi, Zara Jaze, Flora Mabota, Khátia Munguambe, Maria Maixenchs, Ariadna Sanz, Inacio Mandomando, Alfons Nadal, Anna Goncé, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Llorenç Quintó, Jordi Vila, Eusebio Macete, Pedro Alonso, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat Background Over 5 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually. Limited and imprecise information on the cause of these deaths hampers progress in achieving global health targets. Complete diagnostic autopsies (CDAs)—the gold standard for cause of death determination—are difficult to perform in most high-burden settings. Therefore, validation of simpler and more feasible methods is needed. Methods and findings In this observational study, the validity of a minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) method in determining the cause of death was assessed in 18 stillbirths and 41 neonatal deaths by comparing the results of the MIA with those of the CDA. Concordance between the categories of diseases obtained by the 2 methods was assessed by the Kappa statistic, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of the MIA diagnoses were calculated. A cause of death was identified in 16/18 (89%) and 15/18 (83%) stillborn babies in the CDA and the MIA, respectively. Fetal growth restriction accounted for 39%, infectious diseases for 22%, intrapartum hypoxia for 17%, and intrauterine hypoxia for 11% of stillborn babies. Overall, the MIA showed in this group a substantial concordance with the CDA (Kappa = 0.78, 95% CI [0.56–0.99]). A cause of death was identified in all (100%) and 35/41 (85%) neonatal deaths in the CDA and the MIA, respectively. In this group, the majority of deaths were due to infectious diseases (66%). The overall ...

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